Электронная книга: Bernard Gert «Hobbes»


Thomas Hobbes was the first great English political philosopher. His work excited intense controversy among his contemporaries and continues to do so in our own time. In this masterly introduction to his work, Bernard Gert provides the first account of Hobbes’s political and moral philosophy that makes it clear why he is regarded as one of the best philosophers of all time in both of these fields. In a succinct and engaging analysis the book illustrates that the commonly accepted view of Hobbes as holding psychological egoism is not only incompatiblewith his account of human nature but is also incompatible with the moral and political theories that he puts forward. It also explains why Hobbes’s contemporaries did not accept his explicit claim to be providing a natural law account of morality. Gert shows that for Hobbes, civil society is established by a free-gift of their right of nature by the citizens; it does not involve a mutual contract between citizens and sovereign. As injustice involves breaking a contract, the sovereign cannot be unjust; however, the sovereign can be guilty of ingratitude, which is immoral. This distinction between injustice and immorality is part of a sophisticated and nuanced political theory that is in stark contrast to the reading often incorrectly attributed to Hobbes that “might makes right”. It illustrates how Hobbes’s goal of avoiding civil war provides the key to understanding his moral andpolitical philosophy. Hobbes: Prince of Peace is likely to become the classic introduction to the work of Thomas Hobbes and will be a valuable resource for scholars and students seeking to understand the importance and relevance of his work today.

Издательство: "John Wiley&Sons Limited"

ISBN: 9780745675619

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HobbesThomas Hobbes was the first great English political philosopher. His work excited intense controversy among his contemporaries and continues to do so in our own time. In this masterly introduction to… — John Wiley&Sons Limited, электронная книга Подробнее...5401.5электронная книга

Bernard Gert

Bernard Gert (born October 16, 1934 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is a philosopher of ethics known primarily for his work on medical ethics, especially pertaining to psychology, and for his emphasis on the importance of avoiding evil as opposed to promoting good. Although his ethical values are similar to those of utilitarianism, Gert does not identify himself with that philosophical belief. Gert studied philosophy at Cornell University and is presently the Stone Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy at Dartmouth College. Gert's children Heather and Joshua are also philosophy professors.

The Importance of Evil

Gert believes evil is that which all rational creatures seek to avoid, namely, death and suffering. He maintains that the worst evils are far more important in terms of their effects than the greatest goods, and that it is therefore appropriate for morality to emphasize the avoidance of evil.

Rationality and Impartiality

To understand Gert's philosophy, it is important to understand the role rationality plays. According to Gert, rationality does not require morality, however, it does require that we avoid harming ourselves without a reason. Therefore, a rational person would not cause his own pain unless it were for a reason, for example, to cure a disease. Even a masochist causes pain for a reason, presumably for pleasure. Thus, no rational being seeks to harm himself for its own sake. Certain things represent objects of irrational desire, for example, death, pain, and disability. We arrive at moral rules by extending these objects of irrational desire to others. Rationality, alone, does not require this. However, if we adopt the principle of impartiality, whereby we apply the rules without regard to who gains or loses, we extend these prohibitions to others. This results in rules such as do not kill, do not cause pain, do not disable, and so forth.

Ten Moral Rules

In his book "Common Morality: Deciding What to Do", Gert proposes ten moral rules which, if followed, create a moral system. The rules are as follows:

1. Do not kill

2. Do not cause pain

3. Do not disable

4. Do not deprive of freedom

5. Do not deprive of pleasure

6. Do not deceive

7. Keep your promises

8. Do not cheat

9. Obey the law

10. Do your duty.

Gert says that these rules are not absolute and can be violated by following a two step procedure. The first step is to ascertain all morally relevant information about the scenario at hand in order to make a justified evaluation. The second step is to consider the ramifications of other people knowing that they can violate the moral rule in similar circumstances. An example of this would be if you were to consider violating rule #9 (breaking the law) in order to run a red light. You evaluate the scenario and notice that there are no cars around and running the red light will not cause any harm, however, you do not want other people to know that they can run red lights too, because that would lead to more car accidents, which is indirectly causing pain and death. Another example of violating the moral rules would be killing in self defense. If you evaluate the situation, you find that if you do not kill the other person, they will violate one of the moral rules and kill you. Also, it would be acceptable in this scenario for other people to know that killing in self-defense is allowable.


By Bernard Gert
* "The Moral Rules: A New Rational Foundation for Morality", Harper and Row, 1970.
* "Morality: A New Justification of the Moral Rules", Oxford University Press, 1988.
* "Morality: Its Nature and Justification", Oxford University Press, 1998.
* "Common Morality: Deciding What to Do", Oxford University Press, 2004.
* "Morality: Its Nature and Justification", Revised Edition, Oxford University Press, 2005.
* "Bioethics: A Systematic Approach", Oxford University Press, 2006

External links

* [http://www.dartmouth.edu/~gert/ Gert's homepage at Dartmouth]
*Gert, B. (1989). [http://aristotle.tamu.edu/~rasmith/Courses/251/gert-paper.html "Morality versus Slogans"] Paper Presented to the Center for the Study of Ethics in Society, 3(2) Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan
* Gert, B. (2005). [http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2005/entries/morality-definition/ "The Definition of Morality"] , The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)

Источник: Bernard Gert

См. также в других словарях:

  • HOBBES (T.) — Thomas Hobbes appartient pratiquement à la génération de Descartes (il naît au moment où la Grande Armada menace l’Angleterre), mais sa longévité (il meurt à quatre vingt onze ans), la lenteur avec laquelle il élabore son œuvre laissent croire… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Hobbes —   [hɔbz], Thomas, englischer Philosoph, * Westport (heute zu Malmesbury, County Wiltshire) 5. 4. 1588, ✝ Hardwick Hall 4. 12. 1679; studierte in Oxford, war dann Hauslehrer in der Familie der Grafen von Devonshire (diese Stellung behielt er mit… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Hobbes — Hobbes, Thomas, Philosoph, geb. 5. April 1588 in Malmesbury, gest. 4. Dez. 1679 in Hardwick, studierte seit seinem 14. Jahr in Oxford Mathematik und Aristotelische Philosophie, siedelte aus Haß gegen die 1641 ausgebrochene Revolution nach Paris… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hobbes|i|an — «HOB zee uhn», adjective. of or having to do with the English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, 1588 1679, or with Hobbism …   Useful english dictionary

  • Hobbes — Hobbes, Thomas, geb. 5. April 1588 in Malmesbury, wo sein Vater Prediger war; studirte in Oxford; war erst Führer des Grafen von Devonshire, mit dem er 1610 Frankreich u. Italien bereiste, 1629 u. 1634 wiederholte er seine Reise nach Frankreich;… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Hobbes — Hobbes, Thomas, engl. Philosoph, geb. 5. April 1588 zu Malmesbury, gest. 4. Dez. 1679 zu Hardwicke, Begründer des neuern Naturrechts. Hauptwerke: »De cive« (1642; deutsch 1873), »Leviathan« (1651; deutsch 1794 95), »Behemoth, or a history of the… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Hobbes — (Hapeß), Thom., engl. Philosoph, geb. 1588 zu Malmesbury in der Grafschaft Wiltshire, Sohn eines Predigers, studierte eifrig den Aristoteles, bereiste als Erzieher das Festland, trat 1628 dem revolutionären Geiste seiner Landsleute zuerst mit… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • Hobbes — Hobbes, Thomas …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Hobbes's — Hobbes, Thomas …   Philosophy dictionary

  • Hobbes — Hobbes, Thomas …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hobbes — (Thomas) (1588 1679) philosophe anglais. Son empirisme rationaliste débouche sur une morale utilitaire: Léviathan (1651) prône le despotisme. Il a fait des objections aux Méditations de Descartes …   Encyclopédie Universelle

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