name = Henry Lawson
caption = Henry Lawson, circa 1902
birth_date = birth date|df=yes|1867|6|17
birth_place = [Grenfell, New South Wales|Grenfell Goldfields] [New South Wales] , [Australia]
death_date = death date and age|df=yes|1922|9|2|1867|6|17
death_place = Sydney, Australia
occupation = Author,
spouse = Bertha Marie Louise Bredt
children = Joseph
Henry Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and poet. Along with his contemporary Banjo Paterson, Lawson is among the best-known Australian poets and fiction writers of the colonial period, and is often called Australia's "greatest short story writer". [Elder (2008) p. 115]
Lawson was born in a town on the Grenfell goldfields of New South Wales. His mother was Louisa Lawson (née Albury), a prominent suffragist and owner/editor of "The Dawn" journal which was partly responsible for Australia becoming one of the first countries to introduce adult female suffrage. His father was Niels Herzberg Larsen, a Norwegian-born miner who went to sea at 21, arrived in Melbourne in 1855 and joined the gold rush.
[cite web ]
title=Lawson, Henry (1867 - 1922)
work=Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 10
pages=18-22] Larsen travelled to different goldfields, and at Pipeclay (now Eurunderee, New South Wales) met Louisa and married her on 7 July 1866; he was 32 and she, 18. On Henry's birth, the family surname was anglicised and Niels became Peter Lawson. The newly-married couple were to have an unhappy marriage.
Henry Lawson attended school at Eurunderee from 2 October 1876 but suffered an ear infection at around this time that left him with partial deafness and by the age of fourteen he had lost his hearing entirely. He later attended a Catholic school at Mudgee, New South Wales around 8 km away; the master there, Mr. Kevan, would talk to Lawson about poetry. He was a keen reader of Dickens and Marryat and serialised novels such as "Robbery under Arms" and "For the Term of his Natural Life"; an aunt had also given him a volume by Bret Harte. Reading became a major source of his education because, due to his deafness, he had trouble learning in the classroom.
In 1883, after working on building jobs with his father and in the Blue Mountains, Lawson joined his mother in Sydney at her request. Louisa was then living with Henry's sister and brother. Lawson studied for his matriculation, but failed.
In 1896, he married Bertha Bredt Jr., daughter of Bertha Bredt, the prominent socialist. They had two children, son Jim (Joseph) and daughter Bertha. However, the marriage ended unhappily. [Falkiner (1992), p. 64]
Poetry and prose writing
Lawson's first published poem was 'A Song of the Republic' which appeared in The Bulletin, 1 October 1887; his mother's radical friends were an influence. This was followed by 'The Wreck of the Derry Castle' and then 'Golden Gully.'
In 1890-1891 Lawson worked in Albany. [Falkiner (1992), p. 62] He then received an offer to write for the Brisbane "Boomerang" in 1891, but he lasted only around 7-8 months as the "Boomerang" was soon in trouble. He returned to Sydney and continued to write for the "Bulletin" which, in 1892, paid for an inland trip where he experienced the harsh realities of drought-affected New South Wales.
[Elder (2008) p. 113] This resulted in his contributions to the Bulletin Debate and became a source for many of his stories in subsequent years.] Elder writes of the trek Lawson took between Hungerford and Bourke as "the most important trek in Australian literary history" and says that "it confirmed all his prejudices about the Australian bush. Lawson had no romantic illusions about a 'rural idyll'." [Falkiner (1992), p. 63] In it he "continued his assault on Paterson and the romantics, and in the process, virtually reinvented Australian realism".] Elder writes that "he used short, sharp sentences, with language as raw as Ernest Hemingway or Raymond Carver. With sparse adjectives and honed-to-the-bone description, Lawson created a style and defined Australians: dryly laconic, passionately egalitarian and deeply humane." Most of his work focuses on the Australian bush, such as the desolate "Past Carin'", and is considered by some to be among the first accurate descriptions of Australian life as it was at the time.Fact|date=February 2007 "The Drover's Wife" with its "heart-breaking depiction of bleakness and loneliness" is regarded as one of his finest short stories. It is regularly studied in schools and has often been adapted for film and theatre. [ [http://www.artsbird.com/newweben/artsnews.php?db=43&thisid=3037 "Multi-media Theatre: "The Drover's Wife", Australia] ] [ [http://www.theage.com.au/news/Arts/Keeping-bush-ballads/2005/05/16/1116095902715.html "Keeping bush ballads alive and well"] ] [ [http://archives.artgallery.nsw.gov.au/events/a/australian_icons_films "The Drover's Wife": Australian film icon"] ]
Lawson was a firm believer in the merits of the sketch story, commonly known simply as 'the sketch,' claiming that "the sketch story is best of all." ['Three or Four Archibalds and the Writer']
["The Penguin Henry Lawson Short Stories" (First published 1986) Edited with an introduction by John Barnes - Introduction] Lawson's Jack Mitchell story, "On The Edge Of A Plain", is often cited as one of the most accomplished examples of the sketch.] ["The Penguin Henry Lawson Short Stories" (First published 1986) Edited with an introduction by John Barnes - Introduction] ]
Like the majority of Australians, Lawson lived in a city, but had had plenty of experience in outback life, in fact, many of his stories reflected his experiences in real life. In Sydney in 1898 he was a prominent member of the Dawn and Dusk Club, a bohemian club of writer friends who met for drinks and conversation.
During his later life, the alcohol-addicted writer was probably Australia's best-known celebrity. At the same time, he was also a frequent beggar on the streets of Sydney, notably at the Circular Quay ferry turnstiles. He was gaoled at Darlinghurst Gaol for drunkenness and non-payment of alimony, and recorded his experience in the haunting poem "One Hundred and Three" - his prison number - which was published in 1908. He refers to the prison as "Starvinghurst Gaol" because of the meagre rations given to the inmates.
On his death, of cerebral haemorrhage, in Abbotsford, Sydney in 1922, he was given a state funeral. It was attended by the Prime Minister W. M. Hughes and the Premier of New South Wales Jack Lang (who was the husband of Lawson's sister-in-law Hilda Bredt), as well as thousands of citizens. He is interred at Waverley Cemetery. Lawson was the first person to be granted a state funeral.Fact|date=May 2008
Henry Lawson was featured on the first (paper) Australian ten dollar note issued in 1966 when decimal currency was first introduced into Australia. This note was replaced by a polymer note in 1993. Lawson was pictured against scenes from the town of Gulgong in NSW. [ [http://www.rba.gov.au/Museum/Displays/1960_1988_rba_and_reform_of_the_currency/australias_first_decimal_currency_notes.html Museum of Australian Currency Notes] Accessed on June 7, 2007]
Collections of Poetry and/or Prose
*"Short Stories in Prose and Verse (1894)
*"In the Days When the World was Wide and Other Verses (1896)
*"While the Billy Boils" (1896)
*"On the Track" (1900)
*"Over The Sliprails" (1900)
*"The Country I Come From" (1901)
*"Joe Wilson and His Mates" (1901)
*"Children of the Bush" (1902)
*"When I was King and Other Verses (1905)
*"The Elder Son (1905)
*"The Romance of the Swag" (1907)
*"Send Round the Hat" (1907)
*"The Rising Of The Court, and Other Sketches in Prose and Verse" (1910)
*"The Skyline Riders and Other Verses (1910)
*"Triangles of Life and Other Stories" (1913)
*"A Camp-Fire Yarn: Henry Lawson Complete Works 1885-1900" (1984)
*"A Fantasy of Man: Henry Lawson Complete Works 1901-1922" (1984)
*"The Penguin Henry Lawson Short Stories" (1986)
*"The Songs of Henry Lawson" (1989)
*"The Roaring Days" (1994) (aka "The Henry Lawson Collection Vol. 1")
*"On the Wallaby Track" (1994) (aka "The Henry Lawson Collection Vol. 2")
Popular Poems, Short Stories and Sketches
*"Freedom on the Wallaby" (poem, 1891)
*" (poem, 1891)
*"" (poem, 1893)
*"Scots of the Riverina" (poem, 1917)
*"" (poem, 1896)
*"Up The Country" (poem, 1892)
*"The City Bushman" (poem, 1892)
*"" (short story, 1892)
*"The Bush Undertaker" (short story, 1892)
*"The Loaded Dog" (short story, 1901)
*"" (short story,1900)
*"" (short story)
*"" (short story, 1896)
*"A Child in the Dark, and a Foreign Father" (short story, 1902)
*"The Union Buries Its Dead" (short story, 1893)
*"" (essay, 1887)
*"" (essay, 1888)
**"A Double Buggy at Lahey Creek"
**"On The Edge Of A Plain"
**"Bill, the Ventriloquial Rooster"
*Steelman and Smith
*Dave Regan, Jim Bently and/or Andy Page
**"The Loaded Dog"
Recurring Themes of Lawson's Stories
Many of Henry Lawson's short stories explore similar themes:
* Roles of women
* Roles of men
* Roles of children
* Loneliness / Isolation
* Importance of Humour
* The Emotional Impact of Bush Life
* Bulletin Debate
*Elder, Bruce (2008) "In Lawson's Tracks" in "Griffith Review" (19): 93-95, 113-115, Autumn 2008
*Falkiner, Suzanne (1992) "Wilderness" (The Writers' Landscape), Sydney, Simon and Schuster
*Dictionary of Australian Biography|First=Henry|Last=Lawson|Link=http://gutenberg.net.au/dictbiog/0-dict-biogL.html#lawson2
* [http://www.geocities.com/henrylawsononline/ Henry Lawson Online - Poems, Stories, Books, Photos, People, Places, Facts, etc...]
* [http://www.geocities.com/kenbenbooks/Lawson.html Henry Lawson Books - Has details of all known books by Henry Lawson published and for sale]
* [http://gutenberg.net.au/plusfifty-a-m.html#lawson1 Works by Henry Lawson] at [http://gutenberg.net.au Project Gutenberg Australia]
* [http://www.sanjeev.net/poetry/lawson-henry/index.html Poetry Archive: 125 poems of Henry Lawson]
* [http://www.wilsonsalmanac.com/lawsons/lawson_chronology.html Henry Lawson and Louisa Lawson Online Chronology]
* [http://ghostwolf.dyndns.org/words/authors/L/LawsonHenry/index.html Henry Lawson - Essays, Short Stories and Verse Collections]
* [http://chriskempster.net/ The Songs of Henry Lawson Compiled by Chris Kempster - Second enlarged Edition March 2008]
Источник: Henry Lawson