Электронная книга: Otl Aicher «Analogous and Digital»

Analogous and Digital

Otl Aicher (1922-1991) was an outstanding personality in modern design, he was a co-founder of the legendary Hochschule fur Gestaltung (HfG), the Ulm School of Design, Germany. His works since the fifties of the last century in the field of corporate design and his pictograms for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich are major achievements in the visual communication of our times.«An integral component of Aicher's work is that it is anchored in a„philosophy of making“ inspired by such thinkers as Ockham, Kant or Wittgenstein, a philosophy concerned with the prerequisites and aims, the objects and claims, of design. Aicher's complete theoretical and practical writings on design (which include all other aspects of visual creativity, such as architecture) are available with this new edition of the classic work. If Aicher prefers the analogous and concrete to the digital and abstract he does it with a philosophical intention. He relativizes the role of pure reason. He criticizes the rationality of Modernism as a result of the dominance of purely abstract thinking. Anyone who prefers the abstract to the concrete does not only misunderstand the mutual dependence of concept and view. In Aicher's judgement he is also creating a false hierarchy, a rank order that is culturally fatal. Things that are digital and abstract are not greater, higher and more important than things that are analogous and concrete.» Wilhelm Vossenkuhl

Издательство: "John Wiley&Sons Limited"

ISBN: 9783433605943

электронная книга

Купить за 2776.57 руб и скачать на Litres

Другие книги автора:

КнигаОписаниеГодЦенаТип книги
The World as Design. Writings of DesignOtl Aicher's writings are explorations of the world, a substantive part of his work. In moving through the history of thought and design, building and construction, he assures us of the possibilities… — John Wiley&Sons Limited, электронная книга Подробнее...2805.8электронная книга
die welt als entwurf. schriften zum designOtl Aicher (1922–1991) war einer der herausragenden Vertreter des modernen Designs, er war Mitbegründer der legendären Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (HfG). Der heute geläufige Begriff der visuellen… — John Wiley&Sons Limited, электронная книга Подробнее...1793.42электронная книга
analog und digital. schriften zur philosophie des machensOtl Aicher (1922–1991) war einer der herausragenden Vertreter des modernen Designs, er war Mitbegründer der legendären Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm (HfG). Der heute geläu_ ge Begriff der visuellen… — John Wiley&Sons Limited, электронная книга Подробнее...1793.42электронная книга

Otl Aicher

Otl Aicher
Born May 13, 1922 (1922-05-13) (age 89)
Ulm, Germany
Died September 1, 1991(1991-09-01) (aged 69)
Other names Otto Aicher
Occupation Designer

Otl Aicher (May 13, 1922 – September 1, 1991), also known as Otto Aicher, was one of the leading German graphic designers of the 20th century.

Born in Ulm, Aicher was a classmate and friend of Werner Scholl, and through him met Werner's family, including his siblings Hans and Sophie Scholl, both of whom would be executed in 1943 for their membership in the White Rose resistance movement in Nazi Germany. Like the Scholls, Aicher was strongly opposed to the Nazi movement. He was arrested in 1937 for refusing to join the Hitler Youth, and consequently he was failed on his abitur (college entrance) examination in 1941. He was subsequently drafted into the German army to fight in World War II, though he tried to leave at various times. In 1945 he deserted the army, and went into hiding at the Scholls' house in Wutach.

In 1946, after the end of the war, Aicher began studying sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts Munich. In 1947, he opened his own studio in Ulm.

In 1952 he married Inge Scholl, the older sister of Werner, Hans and Sophie.

In 1953, along with Inge Scholl and Max Bill, he founded the Ulm School of Design (Hochschule für Gestaltung Ulm), which became one of Germany's leading educational centres for design during the 1950s and 1960s. Faculty and students include such notable designers as Tomás Maldonado, Max Bill, and Peter Seitz.

He was heavily involved in corporate branding and designed the logo for German airline Lufthansa in 1969.

Aicher may be best known for being the lead designer for the 1972 Munich Olympics. He created a new set of pictograms that paved the way for the ubiquitous stick figures currently used in public signs. The pictograms were created to provide a visual imterpretation of the sport they featured so that athletes and visitors to the Olympic village and stadium could find their way around.[1] He created pictograms using a series of grid systems and a specific bright colour palette that he chose for these Games. In 1966 Aicher was asked by the organisers of the Games to create a design for the Olympics that complemented the architecture of the newly built stadium in Munich designed by Günther Behnisch. Aicher consulted Masaru Katsumie who designed the previous 1964 Tokyo Olympic Games, for advice on how to create the new designs for the 1972 Munich Olympic Games.[1]

Otl Aicher also helped to design the logo of the Munich Olympics. He went through several stages with his design team before finally finding the successful emblem. One of their first ideas was to use an element of the city's coat of arms or Münchner Kindl within the design which showed a monk or child pointing into the distance while clasping a book in his hand. Other ideas were to use the surrounding areas of the city, referencing the sun, mountains and landscape within the design.[1] Finally the Strahlenkranz was created, a garland which represented the sun but also the five Olympic rings merged together in a sprial shape. Designer Coordt Von Mannstein reworked Aichers original design through a mathematical calculation to amalgamate the garland and spiral together to get the final design.[1]

The colours chosen for the designs of the games were selected to reflect the tones of the Alps. The mountains in blue and white would make up the palette of colours which also included green, orange and silver.[1] The colours were used to identify allocated themes such as media, technical services, celebrity hospitality and public functions and each had a different colour so visitors could differentiate the themes around the stadium and village. Uniforms were colour coordinated to represent these themes, the Olympic staff could be identified as working for a particular department by the colour they were wearing.[1]

Aicher used the typeface Univers for the Olympic designs.[1] The design team produced 21 sports posters to advertise the sports at the games, using the official design colours and also including the logo and "München 1972". The design team used a technique called "posterization" for the graphics on the posters, seperating the tonal qualities from the images and using the official munich colours for these games. This had to be produced manually as photoshop did not exist at this time.[1] The first of these posters that was created manually in this way was a poster of the Olympic stadium which became the official poster for these games. these posters were displayed all around the city of Munich and around the Olympic sites. Posters were hung in twos alongside posters designed by famous artists chosen to represent this Olympics such as David Hockney, R. B. Kitaj, Tom Wesselmann and Allan Jones.[1]

He also created the first official Olympic Mascot, a striped dachshund named Waldi.

In 1980, Otl Aicher became a consultant of the kitchen company bulthaup. He created the rotis font family in 1988, naming it after the domicile of Rotis in the city of Leutkirch im Allgäu, where Aicher lived and kept his studio which is still used today by bulthaup.

He has also designed the logo of Munich Airport which is just the letter "M" in a special font.

Aicher died in Günzburg on September 1, 1991, after being struck in a traffic accident.


Aicher wrote many books on design and other subjects, including:

  • "The Kitchen is for Cooking" (1982)
  • "Walking in the Desert" (1982)
  • "Critique of the Automobile" (1984)
  • "Inside the War" (1985)
  • "The World as Design" (Die Welt Als Entwurf) (1991)
  • "Analogous and Digital" (Analog Und Digital) (1991)


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rathgeb, Markus (2006). Otl Aicher. Phaidon. ISBN 9780714843964. 

External links

Источник: Otl Aicher

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Comparison of analog and digital recording — This article compares the two ways in which sound is recorded and stored. Actual sound waves consist of continuous variations in air pressure. Representations of these signals can be recorded using either digital or analog techniques. An analog… …   Wikipedia

  • Digital rights management — (DRM) is a term for access control technologies that are used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders and individuals to limit the use of digital content and devices. The term is used to describe any technology that inhibits uses …   Wikipedia

  • Digital credential — Digital credentials are the digital equivalent of paper based credentials. Just as a paper based credential could be a passport, a Driver s license, a membership certificate or some kind of ticket to obtain some service, such as a cinema ticket… …   Wikipedia

  • Digital morphogenesis — is a process of shape development (or morphogenesis[1]) enabled by computation. While this concept is applicable in many areas, the term digital morphogenesis is used primarily in architecture. In architecture, digital morphogenesis is a group of …   Wikipedia

  • Digital image correlation — and Tracking (DIC/DDIT) is an optical method that employs tracking image registration techniques for accurate 2D and 3D measurements of changes in images. This is often used to measure deformation (engineering), displacement, and strain, but it… …   Wikipedia

  • Digital cinematography — Arriflex D 21 Panavision Genesis …   Wikipedia

  • Digital Revolution — A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The Digital Revolution is the change from analog mechanical and electronic technology to digital technology that has taken place since c. 1980 and continues to the present day.[1] …   Wikipedia

  • Digital philosophy — is a direction in philosophy and cosmology advocated by certain mathematicians and theoretical physicists, e.g., Gregory Chaitin, Edward Fredkin, Stephen Wolfram, and Konrad Zuse (see his Calculating Space). Digital philosophy grew out of an… …   Wikipedia

  • Digital Nervous System — is a phrase, popularly associated with Bill Gates of Microsoft, used to describe a vision for how the IT infrastructure of an enterprise could be analogous to the autonomic nervous system of a biological organism. Gates made extensive use of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Digital nervous system — is a phrase, popularly associated with Bill Gates of Microsoft, used to describe a vision for how the IT infrastructure of an enterprise could be analogous to the autonomic nervous system of a biological organism. Gates made extensive use of the… …   Wikipedia

  • AND Corporation — was incorporated in 1992. AND Corporation developed Holographic Neural Technology (HNeT) [Sutherland J.G. (1990) Holographic Model of Memory, Learning, and Expression in International Journal of Neural Systems Vol. 1 3. pp. 256 267.] [Sutherland… …   Wikipedia