Электронная книга: Hans Berger «Automating with SIMATIC S7-400 inside TIA Portal. Configuring, Programming and Testing with STEP 7 Professional»

Automating with SIMATIC S7-400 inside TIA Portal. Configuring, Programming and Testing with STEP 7 Professional

This book presents a comprehensive description of the configuration of devices and network for the S7-400 components inside the engineering framework TIA Portal. You learn how to formulate and test a control program with the programming languages LAD, FBD, STL, and SCL. The book is rounded off by configuring the distributed I/O with PROFIBUS DP and PROFINET IO using SIMATIC S7-400 and data exchange via Industrial Ethernet. SIMATIC is the globally established automation system for implementing industrial controllers for machines, production plants and processes. SIMATIC S7-400 is the most powerful automation system within SIMATIC. This process controller is ideal for data-intensive tasks that are especially typical for the process industry. With superb communication capability and integrated interfaces it is optimized for larger tasks such as the coordination of entire systems. Open-loop and closed-loop control tasks are formulated with the STEP 7 Professional V11 engineering software in the field-proven programming languages Ladder Diagram (LAD), Function Block Diagram (FBD), Statement List (STL), and Structured Control Language (SCL). The TIA Portal user interface is tuned to intuitive operation and encompasses all the requirements of automation within its range of functions: from configuring the controller, through programming in the different languages, all the way to the program test. Users of STEP 7 Professional V12 will easily get along with the descriptions based on the V11. With start of V12, the screens of the technology functions might differ slightly from the V11.

Издательство: "John Wiley&Sons Limited"

ISBN: 9783895789250

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Hans Berger

Infobox Scientist
name = Hans Berger
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image_width =150px
caption = Hans Berger
birth_date = May 21, 1873
birth_place = Neuses
death_date = June 1, 1941
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citizenship =
nationality = Germany
ethnicity =
field =
work_institutions =
alma_mater = University of Jena
doctoral_advisor =
doctoral_students =
known_for = electroencephalograms
author_abbrev_bot =
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influences =
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Hans Berger (May 21, 1873June 1, 1941) was born in Neuses near Coburg, Thuringia, Germany. He is known as the first to record electroencephalograms from human subjects and is the discoverer of the rhythmic Alpha brain waves.

Background

Berger originally had intended to study astronomy. While he was serving in the German army in the early 1890s, his horse slipped down an embankment, nearly seriously injuring Berger. His sister many miles away had a feeling he was in danger and got her father to telegram him. This astonished him so much that he switched to study psychology Harv|Blakemore|1977.

He studied medicine at the University of Jena, receiving his doctorate in 1897. In 1900 he was hired as an assistant to Otto Ludwig Binswanger (1852-1929), chairman of the University's psychiatry and neurology clinic. There, he joined two famous scientists and physicians, Oskar Vogt (1870-1959) and Korbinian Brodmann (1868-1918) in their research on lateralization of brain function. He became a professor in 1906 and succeeded Binswanger in 1919. He later served as Rector at the University of Jena (1927-1928) and eventually became Professor Emeritus in Psychology in 1938.

Research

Among his many research interests in neurology, Berger studied brain circulation, psychophysiology and brain temperature. However his main contribution to medicine and neurology was the systematic study of the electrical activity of human brain and the development of electroencephalography (EEG), following the pioneering work done by Richard Caton (1842-1926) in England with animals. In 1924, Berger made the first EEG recording in man and called it "Electroenkephalogram". Using the EEG he was also the first to describe the different waves or rhythms which were present in the normal and abnormal brain, such as the alpha wave rhythm (8-12 Hz), also known as Berger's wave; and its suppression (substitution by the faster beta waves) when the subject opens the eyes (the so-called "alpha blockade"). He also studied and described for the first time the nature of EEG alterations in brain diseases such as epilepsy.

His method involved inserting silver wires under the patients scalp, one at the front of the head and one at the back. Later he used silver foil electrodes attached to the head by a rubber bandage. As a recording device he first used the Lippmann's capillary electrometer, but results were disappointing. He then switched to the string galvanometer and later to a double-coil Siemens recording galvanometer, which allowed him to record electrical voltages as small as one ten thousandth of a volt. The resulting output, up to three seconds in duration, was then photographed by an assistant.

"Berger, in 1935, was not regarded by his associates as in the front rank of German psychiatrists, having rather the reputation of being a crank. He seemed to me to be a modest and dignified person, full of good humour, and as unperturbed by lack of recognition as he was later by the fame it eventually brought upon him. But he had one fatal weakness: he was completely ignorant of the technical and physical basis of his method. He knew nothing about mechanics or electricity." " - from The Living Brain, William Grey Walter.

International recognition came later to Berger. His results were confirmed by British and American scientists, such as Edgar Douglas Adrian and he was invited in 1937 to present his work to an international forum, where the importance and pioneering nature of his discoveries were hailed.

Death

Disturbed by the consequences of the Second World War and National Socialism to his professional and private world, Hans Berger committed suicide by hanging himself on June 1, 1941.

Selected publications

* "Über das Elektroenkephalogramm des Menschen." Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 1929, 87: 527-570.

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Further reading

* cite encyclopedia
last = Schulte
first = B.P.M.
title = Berger, Hans
encyclopedia = Dictionary of Scientific Biography
volume = 2
pages = 1-2
publisher = Charles Scribner's Sons
location = New York
date = 1970
isbn = 0684101149

External links

* [http://chem.ch.huji.ac.il/~eugeniik/history/berger.html Hans Berger biography]
* [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/845.html Hans Berger] . "Who Named It" site.

Источник: Hans Berger

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