Book: Bronte Charlotte «Villette 2»

Villette 2

Серия: "The Complete Works of"

Charlotte Bronte was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Bronte sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels have become classics of English literature. The novel Villette reflects her profound loneliness following the deaths of her three siblings. Lucy Snowe, the narrator of this book, flees from an unhappy past in England to begin a new life as a teacher at a French boarding school in the great cosmopolitan capital of Villette. Soon Lucy's struggle for independence is overshadowed by both her friendship with a worldly English doctor and her feelings for an autocratic schoolmaster. Bronte's strikingly modern heroine must decide if there is any man in her society with whom she can live and still be free.

Издательство: "Т8" (2018)

ISBN: 978-5-521-07911-7

Купить за 883 руб в Лабиринте

Другие книги автора:

КнигаОписаниеГодЦенаТип книги
Jane Eyre (+ Audio CD)A classic love story which was first published in 1847. Numerous plays, films and television adaptations have been made of this great novel. Jane works as a governess in the house of the mysterious… — Macmillan Publishers, Macmillan Readers Подробнее...2005594бумажная книга
ShirleyThe Shirley of the title is a woman of independent means; her friend Caroline is not. Both struggle with what a woman's role is and can be. Their male counterparts - Louis, the powerless tutor, and… — Wordsworth, Wordsworth Classics Подробнее...1993219бумажная книга
Jane Eyre'The more solitary, the more friendless, the more unsustained I am, the more I will respect myself'. Rejected by her guardians and offered cold charity at an orphanage, Jane Eyre has come to rely on… — Penguin Group, - Подробнее...2012565бумажная книга
The ProfessorThe hero of Charlotte Bront&# 239;&# 191;&# 189;'s first novel escapes a dreary clerkship in industrial Yorkshire by taking a job as a teacher in Belgium. There, however, his entanglement with the… — Oxford University Press, Oxford World's Classics Подробнее...2009522бумажная книга
Jane Eyre (+ Audio CD)Jane Eyre survives a lonely and loveless childhood at her aunt's house. When she is sent away to school, although she receives an education, her existence is still a cold and solitary one. She dreams… — Richmond, Richmond Readers Подробнее...2012657бумажная книга
Jane EyreAs an orphan, Jane's childhood is not an easy one but her independence and strength of character keep her going through the miseries inflicted by cruel relatives and a brutal school. However, her… — Vintage, - Подробнее...2005262бумажная книга
Jane EyreПолный, неадаптированный текст произведения — Wordsworth, Classics Подробнее...1999318бумажная книга
The ProfessorПолный неадаптированный текст произведения — Wordsworth, Classics Подробнее...2007384бумажная книга
VilletteПолный, неадаптированный текст произведения — Wordsworth, Classics Подробнее...2004401бумажная книга
Jane EyreСерия English Fiction Collection состоит из лучших произведений английских и американских авторов. Читая книгу на языке оригинала, вы не только обогатите собственную лексику инаучитесь чувствовать… — Норматика, English Fiction Collection Подробнее...2013228бумажная книга
The ProfessorПредлагаем вниманию читателей первый роман Шарлотты Бронте (1816-1855), вышедший в свет посмертно, в 1857 году. В его основе - впечатления от времени, проведенного авторомв брюссельском пансионе для… — Каро, Чтение в оригинале.Английский язык Подробнее...2012331бумажная книга
Jane EyreJane Eyre is one of the great romantic heroines of world literature. Orphaned into cold charity at the hands of her rich cousins and, later, at Lowood School, Jane escapes to take up a position as… — Harpercollins, Collins Classics Подробнее...2010270бумажная книга
Jane EyreThe nineteenth century. The north of England. Jane Eyre has no parents and no money. She goes to live at Lowood School. The pupils at Lowood are cold and hungry. Many pupils become sick and die… — Macmillan, Macmillan Readers Подробнее...2015761бумажная книга
Jane Eyre (+ Audio CD)Helbling Readers Blue Series is designed for teenagers and young adults. Readers can choose from sensitively adapted teen-relevant classics and a gripping selection of original fiction — Heinle/Cengage Learn, Helbling Readers Подробнее...2014830бумажная книга
ShirleyThe Shirley of the title is a woman of independent means; her friend Caroline is not. Both struggle with what a woman's role is and can be. Their male counterparts - Louis, the powerless tutor, and… — Wordsworth, Classics Подробнее...2016254бумажная книга

Brontë, Charlotte

▪ British author
Introduction
married name  Mrs. Arthur Bell Nicholls , pseudonym  Currer Bell 
born April 21, 1816, Thornton, Yorkshire, England
died March 31, 1855, Haworth, Yorkshire
 English novelist, noted for Jane Eyre (1847), a strong narrative of a woman in conflict with her natural desires and social condition. The novel gave new truthfulness to Victorian fiction. She later wrote Shirley (1849) and Villette (1853).

Life.
      Her father was Patrick Brontë (1777–1861), an Anglican clergyman. Irish-born, he had changed his name from the more commonplace Brunty. After serving in several parishes, he moved with his wife, Maria Branwell Brontë, and their six small children to Haworth amid the Yorkshire moors in 1820, having been awarded a rectorship there. Soon after, Mrs. Brontë and the two eldest children (Maria and Elizabeth) died, leaving the father to care for the remaining three girls—Charlotte, Emily (Brontë, Emily), and Anne (Brontë, Anne)—and a boy, Patrick Branwell. Their upbringing was aided by an aunt, Elizabeth Branwell, who left her native Cornwall and took up residence with the family at Haworth.

      In 1824 Charlotte and Emily, together with their elder sisters before their deaths, attended Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge, near Kirkby Lonsdale, Lancashire. The fees were low, the food unattractive, and the discipline harsh. Charlotte condemned the school (perhaps exaggeratedly) long years afterward in Jane Eyre, under the thin disguise of Lowood; and the principal, the Rev. William Carus Wilson, has been accepted as the counterpart of Mr. Naomi Brocklehurst in the novel.

      Charlotte and Emily returned home in June 1825, and for more than five years the Brontë children learned and played there, writing and telling romantic tales for one another and inventing imaginative games played out at home or on the desolate moors.

      In 1831 Charlotte was sent to Miss Wooler's school at Roe Head, near Huddersfield, where she stayed a year and made some lasting friendships; her correspondence with one of her friends, Ellen Nussey, continued until her death, and has provided much of the current knowledge of her life. In 1832 she came home to teach her sisters but in 1835 returned to Roe Head as a teacher. She wished to improve her family's position, and this was the only outlet that was offered to her unsatisfied energies. Branwell, moreover, was to start on his career as an artist, and it became necessary to supplement the family resources. The work, with its inevitable restrictions, was uncongenial to Charlotte. She fell into ill health and melancholia and in the summer of 1838 terminated her engagement.

      In 1839 Charlotte declined a proposal from the Rev. Henry Nussey, her friend's brother, and some months later one from another young clergyman. At the same time Charlotte's ambition to make the practical best of her talents and the need to pay Branwell's debts urged her to spend some months as governess with the Whites at Upperwood House, Rawdon. Branwell's talents for writing and painting, his good classical scholarship, and his social charm had engendered high hopes for him; but he was fundamentally unstable, weak willed, and intemperate. He went from job to job and took refuge in alcohol and opium.

      Meanwhile his sisters had planned to open a school together, which their aunt had agreed to finance, and in February 1842 Charlotte and Emily went to Brussels as pupils to improve their qualifications in French and acquire some German. The talent displayed by both brought them to the notice of Constantin Héger, a fine teacher and a man of unusual perception. After a brief trip home upon the death of her aunt, Charlotte returned to Brussels as a pupil-teacher. She stayed there during 1843 but was lonely and depressed. Her friends had left Brussels, and Madame Héger appears to have become jealous of her. The nature of Charlotte's attachment to Héger and the degree to which she understood herself have been much discussed. His was the most interesting mind she had yet met, and he had perceived and evoked her latent talents. His strong and eccentric personality appealed both to her sense of humour and to her affections. She offered him an innocent but ardent devotion, but he tried to repress her emotions. The letters she wrote to him after her return may well be called love letters. When, however, he suggested that they were open to misapprehension, she stopped writing and applied herself, in silence, to disciplining her feelings. However they are interpreted, Charlotte's experiences at Brussels were crucial for her development. She received a strict literary training, became aware of the resources of her own nature, and gathered material that served her, in various shapes, for all her novels.

      In 1844 Charlotte attempted to start a school that she had long envisaged in the parsonage itself, as her father's failing sight precluded his being left alone. Prospectuses were issued, but no pupils were attracted to distant Haworth.

      In the autumn of 1845 Charlotte came across some poems by Emily, and this led to the publication of a joint volume of Currer, Ellis and Acton Bell (1846), or Charlotte, Emily, and Anne; the pseudonyms were assumed to preserve secrecy and avoid the special treatment that they believed reviewers accorded to women. The book was issued at their own expense. It received few reviews and only two copies were sold. Nevertheless, a way had opened to them, and they were already trying to place the three novels they had written. Charlotte failed to place The Professor: A Tale but had, however, nearly finished Jane Eyre: An Autobiography, begun in August 1846 in Manchester, where she was staying with her father, who had gone there for an eye operation. When Smith, Elder and Company, declining The Professor, declared themselves willing to consider a three-volume novel with more action and excitement in it, she completed and submitted it at once. Jane Eyre was accepted, published less than eight weeks later (on Oct. 16, 1847), and had an immediate success, far greater than that of the books that her sisters published the same year.

      The months that followed were tragic ones. Branwell died in September 1848, Emily in December, and Anne in May 1849. Charlotte completed Shirley: A Tale in the empty parsonage, and it appeared in October. In the following years Charlotte went three times to London as the guest of her publisher; there she met the novelist William Makepeace Thackeray and sat for her portrait by George Richmond. She stayed in 1851 with the writer Harriet Martineau and also visited her future biographer, Mrs. Elizabeth Gaskell, in Manchester and entertained her at Haworth. Villette came out in January 1853. Meanwhile, in 1851, she had declined a third offer of marriage, this time from James Taylor, a member of Smith, Elder and Company. Her father's curate, Arthur Bell Nicholls (1817–1906), an Irishman, was her fourth suitor. It took some months to win her father's consent, but they were married on June 29, 1854, in Haworth church. They spent their honeymoon in Ireland and then returned to Haworth, where her husband had pledged himself to continue as curate to her father. He did not share his wife's intellectual life, but she was happy to be loved for herself and to take up her duties as his wife. She began another book, Emma, of which some pages remain. Her pregnancy, however, was accompanied by exhausting sickness, and she died in 1855.

Jane Eyre and other novels.
      Charlotte's first novel, The Professor (published posthumously, 1857), shows her sober reaction from the indulgences of her girlhood. Told in the first person by an English tutor in Brussels, it is based on Charlotte's experiences there, with a reversal of sexes and roles. The necessity of her genius, reinforced by reading her sister Emily's Wuthering Heights, modified this restrictive self-discipline; and, though there is plenty of satire and dry, direct phrasing in Jane Eyre, its success was the fiery conviction with which it presented a thinking, feeling woman, craving for love but able to renounce it at the call of impassioned self-respect and moral conviction. The book's narrator and main character, Jane Eyre, is an orphan and is governess to the ward of Mr. Rochester, the Byronic and enigmatic employer with whom she falls in love. Her love is reciprocated, but on the wedding morning it comes out that Rochester is already married and keeps his mad and depraved wife in the attics of his mansion. Jane leaves him, suffers hardship, and finds work as a village schoolmistress. When Jane learns, however, that Rochester has been maimed and blinded while trying vainly to rescue his wife from the burning house that she herself had set afire, Jane seeks him out and marries him. There are melodramatic naïvetés in the story, and Charlotte's elevated rhetorical passages do not much appeal to modern taste, but she maintains her hold on the reader. The novel is subtitled An Autobiography and is written in the first person; but, except in Jane Eyre's impressions of Lowood, the autobiography is not Charlotte's. Personal experience is fused with suggestions from widely different sources, and the Cinderella theme may well come from Samuel Richardson's Pamela. The action is carefully motivated, and apparently episodic sections, like the return to Gateshead Hall, are seen to be necessary to the full expression of Jane's character and the working out of the threefold moral theme of love, independence, and forgiveness.

      In her novel Shirley, Charlotte avoided melodrama and coincidences and widened her scope. Setting aside Maria Edgworth and Sir Walter Scott as national novelists, Shirley is the first regional novel in English, full of shrewdly depicted local material—Yorkshire characters, church and chapel, the cloth workers and machine breakers of her father's early manhood, and a sturdy but rather embittered feminism.

      In Villette she recurred to the Brussels setting and the first-person narrative, disused in Shirley; the characters and incidents are largely variants of the people and life at the Pension Héger. Against this background she set the ardent heart, deprived of its object, contrasted with the woman happily fulfilled in love.

      The influence of Charlotte's novels was much more immediate than that of Wuthering Heights. Charlotte's combination of romance and satiric realism had been the mode of nearly all the women novelists for a century. Her fruitful innovations were the presentation of a tale through the sensibility of a child or young woman, her lyricism, and the picture of love from a woman's standpoint.

Joyce M.S. Tompkins Ed.

Additional Reading
The first biography, Elizabeth C. Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, 2 vol. (1857), raised controversy and was modified in the third edition (1857, reprinted in 1 vol., 1978); it is indispensable. Winifred Gérin, Charlotte Brontë: The Evolution of Genius (1967, reprinted 1987), is also standard. Margaret Lane, The Brontë Story: A Reconsideration of Mrs. Gaskell's Life of Charlotte Brontë (1953, reprinted 1971), interweaves Gaskell's material with later discoveries. Rebecca Fraser, The Brontës: Charlotte Brontë and Her Family (1988), makes use of previously unavailable or unused materials. Margot Peters, Unquiet Soul (1975); and Helene Moglen, Charlotte Brontë: The Self Conceived (1976, reprinted 1984), are feminist readings. Tom Winnifrith, A New Life of Charlotte Brontë (1988), is brief and critical of other biographers. Barbara Timm Gates (comp.), Critical Essays on Charlotte Brontë (1990), covers the period 1848–1988. Especially during the 20th century a formidable body of scholarship has appeared; guides include Anne Passel, Charlotte and Emily Brontë: An Annotated Bibliography (1979); R.W. Crump, Charlotte and Emily Brontë: A Reference Guide, 3 vol. (1982–86); and F.B. Pinion, A Brontë Companion: Literary Assessment, Background, and Reference (1975).

* * *

Источник: Brontë, Charlotte

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Villette — can refer to:People*Pierre Villette, French composer *Rétaux de Villette, French forgerPlacesVillette or La Villette is the name or part of the name of several places in Europe:France*Villette, in the Meurthe et Moselle département *Villette, in… …   Wikipedia

  • Villette — ist der Name folgender Orte in der Schweiz: eine Gemeinde im Bezirk Lavaux des Kantons Waadt, siehe Villette (Lavaux) ein Ortsteil der Gemeinde Bagnes im Kanton Wallis ein Quartier in der Stadt Bern vor dem Obertor, in dem der Bahnhof liegt ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Villette (VD) — Villette (Lavaux) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Villette. Villette (Lavaux) Une vue d ensemble de la commune serait la bienvenue Administration Pays …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Villette — (Каорле,Италия) Категория отеля: Адрес: Different Locations in Caorle (Check in takes plac …   Каталог отелей

  • villette — [vilɛt] n. f. ÉTYM. V. 1190, « petite ville »; « petite villa », v. 1100; dans des noms géographiques, cf. la Villette, quartier du Nord de Paris; repris 1973; de ville. ❖ ♦ Rare. (Urbanisme). Commune suburbaine possédant de 10 à 20 000 habitants …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Villette — Villette, Marquise von V., so v. w. Caylus 1) …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Villette, La — (spr. wilett ), nordöstlicher Stadtteil von Paris (19. Arrondissement) mit zahlreichen Fabriken, Viehmarkt, Schlachthaus und dem großen Bassin, in dem die drei Pariser Kanäle zusammentreffen …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Villette — Villette, La (spr. willétt), nordöstl. Stadtteil von Paris …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Villette — Villette, moderno centro cultural de la ciudad de París. Ocupa el solar dejado después de que el matadero municipal fuese retirado del norte de la ciudad en los años 1970 …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • villette — Villette, ou foret, voyez Foret, et Ville …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • Villette — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sommaire 1 Nom de famille 2 Toponyme 2.1 …   Wikipédia en Français