Книга: Niall Ferguson «Kissinger: 1923-1968: The Idealist»

Kissinger: 1923-1968: The Idealist

Производитель: "Penguin Books Ltd."

`Ferguson makes the case for Kissinger being more than just an amoral Machiavellian diplomat who pursued cynical realpolitik. In fact, he was an idealist who had freedom at the centre of his worldview`. Robbie Millen, The Times, Books of the Year `This is a superb history of the modern world as well as a biography of Kissinger... a tour de force`. Wiuiam Shawcross, The Times `Definitive... reveals his subject as nothing like the calculating cold fish of legend`. Marcus Tanner, Independent ISBN:978-0-141-02200-0, 9780141022000

Издательство: "Penguin Books Ltd." (2016)

Формат: 128x200, 1038 стр.

ISBN: 978-0-141-02200-0

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Niall Ferguson

Niall Ferguson

Born 18 April 1964 (1964-04-18) (age 47)
Glasgow, Scotland
Nationality British
Fields Financial and economic history
Institutions Harvard University (Harvard Business School, Harvard College)
London School of Economics
Alma mater Magdalen College, Oxford
Known for Counterfactual history
Economic history
History of empire and imperialism
Influences A. J. P. Taylor, Kenneth Clark, Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Maynard Keynes
Spouse Ayaan Hirsi Ali

Niall Campbell Douglas Ferguson (born April 18, 1964)[1] is a British historian, professor and television pundit. His specialty is financial and economic history, particularly hyperinflation and the bond markets, as well as the history of colonialism.[2].

Ferguson, who was born in Glasgow, is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University[3] as well as William Ziegler Professor of Business Administration at Harvard Business School, and also currently the Philippe Roman Chair in History and International Affairs at the London School of Economics. He was educated at the private Glasgow Academy in Scotland, and at Magdalen College, Oxford. During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Ferguson advised Senator John McCain's campaign.[2]

In the UK, Ferguson is probably best known as the author of Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. In 2008, Ferguson published The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World,[4] which he also presented as a Channel 4 television series. Both at Harvard College and at LSE, Ferguson teaches a course entitled "Western Ascendancy: The Mainsprings of Global Power from 1600 to the Present."

Contents

Early life

Ferguson was born the son of a doctor father and a physics teacher mother in Glasgow on April 18th 1964, and lived for a time near Ibrox Park.[5][6] He attended The Glasgow Academy.

Ferguson cites his father as instilling in him a strong sense of self-discipline and of the moral value of work, whilst his mother encouraged his creative side.[7] His journalist maternal grandfather encouraged him to write.[8] Unable to decide on studying an English or a History degree at university, Ferguson cites his reading of War and Peace as persuading him towards History.[9] Of late 1970s Glasgow, Ferguson describes "the main industries" of the city as "sectarianism and strike action".[10]

University of Oxford

Ferguson received a Demyship (half-scholarship) at Magdalen College, Oxford, graduating with a first-class honours degree in History in 1985.[11] Whilst at Oxford he became best friends with Andrew Sullivan based on a shared love of right-wing politics and punk music.[12] He became a Thatcherite by 1982, identifying the position with "the Sex Pistols' position in 1977: it was a rebellion against the stuffy corporatism of the 70s."[13] Whilst at university "He was very much a Scot on the make...Niall was a witty, belligerent bloke who seemed to have come from an entirely different planet," according to Simon Winder.[12] Ferguson has stated that "I was surrounded by insufferable Etonians with fake Cockney accents who imagined themselves to be working-class heroes in solidarity with the striking miners. It wasn't long before it became clear that the really funny and interesting people on campus were Thatcherites."[12]

Rachel Johnson has said of Ferguson at the time:

He was attractive. He was clever. And I still remember him making me sob with laughter by describing how a man feels if he succeeds in bringing a woman to orgasm (like Jesse Owens at the Olympic stadium in Berlin, he said, raising his arms aloft).[14]

Johnson commissioned Ferguson to write an essay for a collection:

Ferguson's piece was one of the first to come in. I can't remember much about it, but it wasn't quite the ticket. I remember sending him a photocopied letter that I was sending to all the contributors, with suggestions, pertaining to his essay, at the bottom. I found his reply in my pigeonhole, a few days later. "Dear Rachel Johnson," it read. "F--- off. Yours, Niall Ferguson." I assumed that he wanted nothing to do with the book again, so I re-commissioned the piece.[14]

Regarding slights and criticism, Ferguson has stated: "Nobody should ever imagine that they can do that kind of thing to me with impunity. Life is long, and revenge is a dish that tastes best cold. I'm very unforgiving."[15]

Ferguson thus went on to attack Johnson's collection of essays (minus his own contribution) in a newspaper review.[14]

At Oxford, Ferguson improved his German by reading Nietzsche whilst drinking Guinness in the pub with Norman Stone.[12]

Career

Academic career

Ferguson is a Senior Research Fellow of Jesus College, University of Oxford and a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution, Stanford University. He is a resident faculty member of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies, and an advisory fellow of the Barsanti Military History Center at the University of North Texas.

In May 2010 he announced that Education Secretary Michael Gove in the U.K's newly elected Conservative/Lib Dem government had invited him to advise on the development of a new history syllabus—"history as a connected narrative"— for schools in England and Wales.[17][2] In June 2011 it was announced that he would join the professoriate of New College of the Humanities, a private college in London.[18]

Business career

In 2007, Ferguson was appointed as an Investment Management Consultant by GLG Partners, focusing on geopolitical risk as well as current structural issues in economic behaviour relating to investment decisions.[19] GLG is a UK-based hedge fund management firm headed by Noam Gottesman.[20]

Career as commentator

In October 2007, Niall Ferguson left The Sunday Telegraph to join the Financial Times,[21] where he is now a contributing editor.[22] He also writes for Newsweek.[2]

Ferguson has often described the European Union as a disaster waiting to happen,[23] and has criticised President Vladimir Putin of Russia for authoritarianism. In Ferguson's view, certain of Putin's policies, if they continue, may stand to lead Russia to catastrophes equivalent to those that befell Germany during the Nazi era.[24]

Interests and views

World War I

In 1998 Ferguson published the critically acclaimed The Pity of War: Explaining World War One, which with the help of research assistants he was able to write in just five months.[11][12] This is an analytic account of what Ferguson considered to be the ten great myths of the Great War. The book generated much controversy, particularly Ferguson's suggestion that it might have proved more beneficial for Europe if Britain had stayed out of the First World War in 1914, thereby allowing Germany to win.[25] Ferguson has argued that the British decision to intervene was what stopped a German victory in 1914–15. Furthermore, Ferguson expressed disagreement with the Sonderweg interpretation of German history championed by some German historians such as Fritz Fischer, Hans-Ulrich Wehler, Hans Mommsen and Wolfgang Mommsen, who argued that the German Empire deliberately started an aggressive war in 1914 and that the Second Reich was little more than a dress rehearsal for the Third Reich. Likewise, Ferguson has often attacked the work of the German historian Michael Stürmer, who argued that it was Germany's geographical situation in Central Europe that determined the course of German history.

On the contrary, Ferguson maintained that Germany waged a preventive war in 1914, a war largely forced on the Germans by reckless and irresponsible British diplomacy. In particular, Ferguson accused the British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Grey of maintaining an ambiguous attitude to the question of whether Britain would enter the war or not, and thus confusing Berlin over just what was the British attitude towards the question of intervention in the war.[26] Ferguson accused London of unnecessarily allowing a regional war in Europe to escalate into a world war. Moreover, Ferguson denied that the origins of National Socialism could be traced back to Imperial Germany; instead Ferguson asserted the origins of Nazism could only be traced back to the First World War and its aftermath.

The “myths” of World War I that Ferguson attacked, with his counter-arguments in parentheticals, are:

  • That Germany was a highly militarist country before 1914 (Ferguson claims Germany was Europe’s most anti-militarist country)[27]
  • That naval challenges mounted by Germany drove Britain into informal alliances with France and Russia before 1914 (Ferguson claims the British were driven into alliances with France and Russia as a form of appeasement due to the strength of those nations, and an Anglo-German alliance failed to materialize due to German weakness)[28]
  • That British foreign policy was driven by legitimate fears of Germany (Ferguson claims Germany posed no threat to Britain before 1914, and that all British fears of Germany were due to irrational anti-German prejudices) [29]
  • That the pre-1914 arms race was consuming ever larger portions of national budgets at an unsustainable rate (Ferguson claims that the only limitations on more military spending before 1914 were political, not economic)[30]
  • That World War I was, as Fritz Fischer claimed, a war of aggression on part of Germany that necessitated British involvement to stop Germany from conquering Europe (Ferguson claims that if Germany had been victorious, something like the European Union would have been created in 1914, and that it would have been for the best if Britain had chosen to opt out of war in 1914)[31]
  • That most people were happy with the outbreak of war in 1914 (Ferguson claims that most Europeans were saddened by the coming of war) [32]
  • That propaganda was successful in making men wish to fight (Ferguson argues the opposite)[33]
  • That the Allies made the best use of their economic resources (Ferguson argues that the Allies “squandered” their economic resources) [34]
  • That the British and the French had the better armies (Ferguson claims the German Army was superior)[35]
  • That the Allies were more efficient at killing Germans (Ferguson argues that the Germans were more efficient at killing the Allies)[36]
  • That most soldiers hated fighting in the war (Ferguson argues most soldiers fought more or less willingly)[37]
  • That the British treated German prisoners of war well (Ferguson argues the British routinely killed German POWS)[38]
  • That Germany was faced with reparations after 1921 that could not be paid except at ruinous economic cost (Ferguson argues that Germany could easily have paid reparations had there been the political will)[39]

Another controversial aspect of the Pity of War was Ferguson's use of counterfactual history. Ferguson presented a counter-factual version of Europe under Imperial German domination that was peaceful, prosperous, democratic and without ideologies like Communism and fascism.[40] In Ferguson's view, had Germany won World War I, then the lives of millions would have been saved, something like the European Union would have been founded in 1914, and Britain would have remained an empire and the world's dominant financial power.[40]

In more recent publications, he comes across as an imperialism nostalgic (with references to a modern German Empire and Habsburg Empire) and an opponent of European integration.[41]

Rothschilds

Ferguson wrote two volumes about the prominent Rothschild family:

  • The House of Rothschild: Volume 1: Money's Prophets: 1798–1848[42]
  • The House of Rothschild: Volume 2: The World's Banker: 1849–1999[43]

The books won the Wadsworth Prize for Business History and were also short-listed for the Jewish Quarterly-Wingate Literary Award and the American National Jewish Book Award.[22]

Counterfactual history

Ferguson sometimes champions counterfactual history, and edited a collection of essays exploring the subject titled Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals (1997). Ferguson likes to imagine alternative outcomes as a way of stressing the contingent aspects of history. For Ferguson, great forces don't make history; individuals do, and nothing is predetermined. Thus for Ferguson there are no paths in history that will determine how things will work out. The world is neither progressing nor regressing; only the actions of individuals will determine whether we live in a better or worse world. His championing of the method has been controversial within the field.[44]

In a 2011 review of Ferguson's book Civilization: The West and the Rest, Noel Malcolm (a Senior Research Fellow in History at All Souls College at Oxford University) stated (without mentioning counterfactuals) that: "Students may find this an intriguing introduction to a wide range of human history; but they will get an odd idea of how historical argument is to be conducted, if they learn it from this book."[45]

Henry Kissinger

In 2003, former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger provided Ferguson with access to his White House diaries, letters, and archives for what Ferguson calls a "warts-and-all biography" of Kissinger.[46]

Colonialism

Ferguson is critical of what he calls the "self-flagellation" that he says characterizes modern European thought.

"The moral simplification urge is an extraordinarily powerful one, especially in this country, where imperial guilt can lead to self-flagellation," he told a reporter. "And it leads to very simplistic judgments. The rulers of western Africa prior to the European empires were not running some kind of scout camp. They were engaged in the slave trade. They showed zero sign of developing the country's economic resources. Did Senegal ultimately benefit from French rule? Yes, it's clear. And the counterfactual idea that somehow the indigenous rulers would have been more successful in economic development doesn't have any credibility at all."[2]

Richard Drayton, Rhodes Professor of Imperial History at the University of London, has stated that it is correct to associate "Ferguson with an attempt to 'rehabilitate empire' in the service of contemporary great power interests".[47]

Islam and Eurabia

Matthew Carr wrote in Race & Class that "Niall Ferguson, the conservative English historian and enthusiastic advocate of a new American empire, has also embraced the Eurabian idea in a widely reproduced article entitled ‘Eurabia?’,[48] in which he laments the ‘de-Christianization of Europe’ and its culture of secularism that leaves the continent ‘weak in the face of fanaticism’." Carr adds that "Ferguson sees the recent establishment of a department of Islamic studies in his Oxford college as another symptom of ‘the creeping Islamicization of a decadent Christendom’" and that in a 2004 lecture at the American Enterprise Institute entitled ‘The end of Europe?’,[49] "Ferguson struck a similarly Spenglerian note, conjuring the term ‘impire’ to depict a process in which a ‘political entity, instead of expanding outwards towards its periphery, exporting power, implodes – when the energies come from outside into that entity’. In Ferguson’s opinion, this process was already under way in a decadent ‘post-Christian’ Europe that was drifting inexorably towards the dark denouement of a vanquished civilisation and the fatal embrace of Islam."[50]

Iraq war

Ferguson supported the Iraq war and is not necessarily opposed to future incursions in the world.

"It's all very well for us to sit here in the west with our high incomes and cushy lives, and say it's immoral to violate the sovereignty of another state. But if the effect of that is to bring people in that country economic and political freedom, to raise their standard of living, to increase their life expectancy, then don't rule it out".[2]

Economic policy

In its August 15, 2005 edition, The New Republic published "The New New Deal", an essay by Ferguson and Laurence J. Kotlikoff, a Professor of Economics at Boston University. The two scholars called for the following changes to the American government's fiscal and income security policies:

  • Replacing the personal income tax, corporate income tax, Federal Insurance Contributions Act tax (FICA), estate tax, and gift tax with a 33% Federal Retail Sales Tax (FRST), plus a monthly rebate, amounting to the FRST a household with similar demographics would pay if its income were at the poverty line. See also: FairTax;
  • Replacing the Old Age benefits paid under Social Security with a Personal Security System, consisting of private retirement accounts for all citizens, plus a government benefit payable to those whose savings were insufficient to afford a minimum retirement income;
  • Replacing Medicare and Medicaid with a Medical Security System that would provide health insurance vouchers to all citizens, the value of which would be determined by one's health;
  • Cutting federal discretionary spending by 20%.

Criticisms

As scholar

Fellow academics have questioned Ferguson's commitment to scholarship. Benjamin Wallace-Wells, an editor of The Washington Monthly, comments that

"The House of Rothschild remains Ferguson's only major work to have received prizes and wide acclaim from other historians. Research restrains sweeping, absolute claims: Rothschild is the last book Ferguson wrote for which he did original archival work, and his detailed knowledge of his subject meant that his arguments for it couldn't be too grand."[51]

John Lewis Gaddis, a renowned Cold War era historian, characterized Ferguson as having unrivaled "range, productivity and visibility" at the same time as criticising his work as being "unpersuasive". Gaddis goes on to state that "several of Ferguson's claims, moreover, are contradictory".[52]

Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm has praised Ferguson as an excellent historian.[53] However, he has also criticised Ferguson, saying, on the BBC Radio programme Start the Week, that he was a "nostalgist for empire".[54] Ferguson responded to the above criticisms in a Washington Post "Live Discussions" online forum in 2006.[55]

Exchanges with Krugman

In May 2009, Ferguson became involved in a high-profile exchange of views with economist Paul Krugman (then the most recent Economics Nobel Prize winner) arising out of a panel discussion hosted by Pen/New York Review on April 30, 2009, regarding the U.S. economy. Ferguson contended that the Obama administration's policies are simultaneously Keynesian and monetarist, in an incoherent mix, and specifically that the government's issuance of a multitude of new bonds will cause an increase in interest rates. Krugman then extended the criticism to China and the European Union, as both pursued policies more in accord with Ferguson's stance than Krugman's.[56]

Krugman has argued that Ferguson's view is "resurrecting 75-year old fallacies" and full of "basic errors". He has also stated that Ferguson is a "poseur" who "...hasn't bothered to understand the basics, relying on snide comments and surface cleverness to convey the impression of wisdom. It's all style, no comprehension of substance."[57][58] J. Bradford DeLong of Berkeley agreed with Krugman, concluding "Niall Ferguson does indeed know a lot less than economists knew in the 1920s".[59]

Personal life

Ferguson married journalist Susan Douglas, whom he met in 1987 when she was his editor at the Daily Mail. They have three children.[60] They separated in 2010 and divorced in 2011.

In February 2010 news media reported that Ferguson had separated from Douglas and started dating former Dutch MP Ayaan Hirsi Ali.[61][62][63] Ferguson married Hirsi Ali in September 2011.[64] News media have reported that Hirsi Ali and Ferguson are expecting their first child late in 2011.[65] Ferguson dedicated his book Civilization to "Ayaan". In an interview with The Guardian, Ferguson spoke about his love for Ali, who, he writes in the preface, "understands better than anyone I know what Western civilisation really means – and what it still has to offer the world".[2]Ali, he continued,

...grew up in the Muslim world, was born in Somalia, spent time in Saudi Arabia, was a fundamentalist as a teenager. Her journey from the world of her childhood and family to where she is today is an odyssey that's extremely hard for you or I to imagine. To see and hear how she understands western philosophy, how she understands the great thinkers of the Enlightenment, of the 19th-century liberal era, is a great privilege, because she sees it with a clarity and freshness of perspective that's really hard for us to match. So much of liberalism in its classical sense is taken for granted in the west today and even disrespected. We take freedom for granted, and because of this we don't understand how incredibly vulnerable it is.[2]

Ferguson's self confessed workaholism has placed strains on his personal relations in the past. Ferguson has commented that:

...from 2002, the combination of making TV programmes and teaching at Harvard took me away from my children too much. You don't get those years back. You have to ask yourself: "Was it a smart decision to do those things?" I think the success I have enjoyed since then has been bought at a significant price. In hindsight, there would have been a bunch of things that I would have said no to.[66]

Ferguson's younger sister is a professor at the University of Pennsylvania.[67]

Ferguson was the inspiration for Alan Bennett's play The History Boys (2004), particularly the character of Irwin, a history teacher who urges his pupils to find a counterintuitive angle, and goes on to become a television historian.[68]

Bibliography

The Cash Nexus

In his 2001 book, The Cash Nexus, which he wrote following a year as Houblon-Norman Fellow at the Bank of England,[22] Ferguson argues that the popular saying, "money makes the world go 'round", is wrong; instead he presented a case for human actions in history motivated by far more than just economic concerns.

Colossus and Empire

In his books Colossus and Empire, Ferguson presents a nuanced and partially apologetic view of the British Empire and in conclusion proposes that the modern policies of the United Kingdom and the United States, in taking a more active role in resolving conflict arising from the failure of states, are analogous to the 'Anglicization' policies adopted by the British Empire throughout the 19th century.[69][70] In Colossus, Ferguson explores the United States' hegemony in foreign affairs and its future role in the world.[71][72]

War of the World

The War of the World, published in 2006, had been ten years in the making and is a comprehensive analysis of the savagery of the 20th century. Ferguson shows how a combination of economic volatility, decaying empires, psychopathic dictators, and racially/ethnically motivated (and institutionalized) violence resulted in the wars and the genocides of what he calls "History's Age of Hatred". The New York Times Book Review named War of the World one of the 100 Notable Books of the Year in 2006, while the International Herald Tribune called it "one of the most intriguing attempts by an historian to explain man's inhumanity to man".[73] Ferguson addresses the paradox that, though the 20th century was "so bloody", it was also "a time of unparalleled [economic] progress". As with his earlier work Empire,[74] War of the World was accompanied by a Channel 4 television series presented by Ferguson.[75]

The Ascent of Money

Published in 2008, The Ascent of Money examines the long history of money, credit, and banking. In it he predicts a financial crisis as a result of the world economy and in particular the United States using too much credit. Specifically he cites the ChinaAmerica dynamic which he refers to as Chimerica where an Asian "savings glut" helped create the subprime mortgage crisis with an influx of easy money.[76]

Civilization

Published in 2011, Civilization: The West and the Rest examines what Ferguson calls the most "interesting question" of our day: "Why, beginning around 1500, did a few small polities on the western end of the Eurasian landmass come to dominate the rest of the world?" He attributes this divergence to the West's development of six "killer apps" largely missing elsewhere in the world - "competition, science, democracy, medicine, consumerism and the work ethic". [2] A related documentary Civilization: Is the West History? was broadcast as a six part series on Channel 4 in March and April of 2011.[77]

Publications

[3]
  • Ferguson, Niall (2012). Henry Kissinger: A Life. Allen Lane. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2011). Civilization: The West and the Rest. The Penguin Press HC,. ISBN 978-1594203053. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2010). High Financier: The Lives And Times Of Siegmund Warburg. New York: Penguin. ISBN 9781594202469. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2008). The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1846141065. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2006). The War of the World: History's Age of Hatred. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9708-7.  (also a Channel 4 series[75])
  • Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02328-2. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2005). 1914. Pocket Penguins 70s S.. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 0-14-102220-5. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2004). Colossus: The Rise And Fall Of The American Empire. Gardners Books. ISBN 0-7139-9770-2. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2003). Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9615-3. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (2001). The Cash Nexus: Money and Power in the Modern World, 1700-2000. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9465-7. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (1999) [1997]. Virtual History: Alternatives and Counterfactuals. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-02322-3. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (1999) [1998]. The Pity of War. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-05711-X. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (1999). The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker, 1849–1999. New York, N.Y.: Viking. ISBN 0-670-88794-3. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (1998). The World's Banker: The History of the House of Rothschild. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81539-3. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (1998). The House of Rothschild. New York, N.Y.: Viking. ISBN 0-670-85768-8. 
  • Ferguson, Niall (1995). Paper and Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation, 1897–1927. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47016-1. 

As Contributor

  • “Europa nervosa”, in Nader Mousavizadeh (ed.), The Black Book of Bosnia (New Republic/Basic Books, 1996), pp. 127–32
  • “The German inter-war economy: Political choice versus economic determinism” in Mary Fulbrook (ed.), German History since 1800(Arnold, 1997), pp. 258–278
  • “The balance of payments question: Versailles and after” in Manfred F. Boemeke, Gerald D. Feldman and Elisabeth Glaser (eds.), The Treaty of Versailles: A Reassessment after 75 Years (Cambridge University Press, 1998), pp. 401–440
  • “‘The Caucasian Royal Family’: The Rothschilds in national contexts” in R. Liedtke (ed.), ‘Two Nations’: The Historical Experience of British and German Jews in Comparison (J.C.B. Mohr, 1999)
  • “Academics and the Press”, in Stephen Glover (ed.), Secrets of the Press: Journalists on Journalism (Penguin, 1999), pp. 206–220
  • “Metternich and the Rothschilds: A reappraisal” in Andrea Hamel and Edward Timms (eds.), Progress and Emancipation in the Age of Metternich: Jews and Modernisation in Austria and Germany, 1815–1848 (Edwin Mellen Press, 1999), pp. 295–325
  • “The European economy, 1815–1914” in T.C.W. Blanning (ed.), The Short Oxford History of Europe: The Nineteenth Century (Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 78–125
  • “How (not) to pay for the war: Traditional finance and total war” in Roger Chickering and Stig Förster (eds.), Great War, Total War: Combat and Mobilization on the Western Front (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 409–34
  • “Introduction” in Frederic Manning , Middle Parts of Fortune (Penguin, 2000), pp. vii-xviii
  • “Clashing civilizations or mad mullahs: The United States between informal and formal empire” in Strobe Talbott (ed.), The Age of Terror (Basic Books, 2001), pp. 113–41
  • “Public debt as a post-war problem: The German experience after 1918 in comparative perspective” in Mark Roseman (ed.), Three Post-War Eras in Comparison: Western Europe 1918-1945-1989 (Palgrave-Macmillan, 2002), pp. 99–119
  • “Das Haus Sachsen-Coburg und die europäische Politik des 19. Jahrhunderts”, in Rainer von Hessen (ed.), Victoria Kaiserin Friedrich (1840–1901): Mission und Schicksal einer englischen Prinzessin in Deutschland (Campus Verlag, 2002), pp. 27–39
  • “Max Warburg and German politics: The limits of financial power in Wilhelmine Germany”, in Geoff Eley and James Retallack (eds.), Wilhelminism and Its Legacies: German Modernities, Imperialism and the Meaning of Reform, 1890-1930 (Berghahn Books, 2003), pp. 185–201
  • “Introduction”, The Death of the Past by J. H. Plumb (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. xxi-xlii
  • “Globalization in historical perspective: The political dimension”, in Michael D. Bordo, Alan M. Taylor and Jeffrey G. Williamson (eds.), Globalisation in Historical Perspective (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report) (University of Chicago Press, 2003)
  • “Introduction to Tzvetan Todorov” in Nicholas Owen (ed.), Human Rights, Human Wrongs: Oxford Amnesty Lectures (Amnesty International, 2003)
  • “The City of London and British imperialism: New light on an old question”, in Youssef Cassis and Eric Bussière (eds.), London and Paris as International Financial Centres in the Twentieth Century (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 57–77
  • “A bolt from the blue? The City of London and the outbreak of the First World War”, in Wm. Roger Louis (ed.), Yet More Adventures with Britainnia: Personalities, Politics and Culture in Britain (I.B. Tauris, 2005), pp. 133–145
  • “The first ‘Eurobonds’: The Rothschilds and the financing of the Holy Alliance, 1818–1822”, in William N. Goetzmann and K. Geert Rouwenhorst (eds.), The Origins of Value: The Financial Innovations that Created Modern Capital Markets (Oxford University Press, 2005), pp. 311–323
  • “Prisoner taking and prisoner killing in the age of total war”, in George Kassemiris (ed.), The Barbarization of Warfare (New York University Press, 2006), pp. 126–158
  • “The Second World War as an economic disaster”, in Michael Oliver (ed.), Economic Disasters of the Twentieth Century (Edward Elgar, 2007), pp. 83–132
  • “The Problem of Conjecture: American Strategy after the Bush Doctrine”, in Melvyn Leffler and Jeff Legro (eds.), To Lead the World: American Strategy After the Bush Doctrine (Oxford University Press, 2008)

Television documentaries

  • Empire (2003)
  • American Colossus (2004)
  • The War of the World (2006)
  • The Ascent of Money (2008)
  • Civilization: Is The West History? (2011)

References

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.niallferguson.com/site/FERG/Templates/General2.aspx?pageid=5
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i William Skidelsky (February 23, 2011). "Niall Ferguson: 'Westerners don't understand how vulnerable freedom is'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/feb/20/niall-ferguson-interview-civilization. Retrieved 24 February 2011. 
  3. ^ Niall Ferguson - Biography
  4. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2008). The Ascent of Money: A Financial History of the World. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1846141065. 
  5. ^ Smith, David (18 June 2006). "The Observer Profile: Niall Ferguson". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2006/jun/18/academicexperts.highereducation. 
  6. ^ Templeton, Tom (18 January 2009). "This much I know: Niall Ferguson, historian, 44, London". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/jan/18/niall-ferguson-historian-interview. 
  7. ^ Duncan, Alistair (19 March 2011). "Niall Ferguson: My family values". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/mar/19/niall-ferguson-my-family-values. 
  8. ^ Duncan, Alistair (19 March 2011). "Niall Ferguson: My family values". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/mar/19/niall-ferguson-my-family-values. 
  9. ^ Templeton, Tom (18 January 2009). "This much I know: Niall Ferguson, historian, 44, London". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/jan/18/niall-ferguson-historian-interview. 
  10. ^ Templeton, Tom (18 January 2009). "This much I know: Niall Ferguson, historian, 44, London". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/jan/18/niall-ferguson-historian-interview. 
  11. ^ a b Niall Ferguson, Senior Fellow from the Hoover Institution website
  12. ^ a b c d e http://www.robertboynton.com/articleDisplay.php?article_id=50
  13. ^ Templeton, Tom (18 January 2009). "This much I know: Niall Ferguson, historian, 44, London". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/jan/18/niall-ferguson-historian-interview. 
  14. ^ a b c Johnson, Rachel (1 August 2003). "We were the Bright Young Prigs". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/donotmigrate/3599658/We-were-the-Bright-Young-Prigs.html. 
  15. ^ Aitkenhead, Decca (11 April 2011). "Niall Ferguson: 'The left love being provoked by me ... they think I'm a reactionary imperialist scumbag'". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/apr/11/niall-ferguson-political-debate-england-america. 
  16. ^ http://www2.lse.ac.uk/newsAndMedia/newsArchive/archives/2009/ferguson.aspx
  17. ^ Higgins, Charlotte (31 May 2010). "Empire strikes back: rightwing historian to get curriculum role". The Guardian (London): p. 1. 
  18. ^ "The professoriate", New College of the Humanities, accessed June 8, 2011.
  19. ^ "Meet The Hedge Fund Historian". Forbes.com. 30 September 2007. http://www.forbes.com/2007/09/30/niall-ferguson-glg-face-markets-cx_ll_0927autofacescan02.html. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  20. ^ "GLG Company Description". https://www.glgpartners.com/about_glg/company_description. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
  21. ^ Tryhorn, Chris (23 October 2007). "Niall Ferguson joins FT". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2007/oct/23/pressandpublishing.financialtimes. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  22. ^ a b c "Niall Ferguson: Biography". http://www.niallferguson.org/bio.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  23. ^ "The End of Europe?". Speech to the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. 4 March 2004. http://www.aei.org/speech/20045. 
  24. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2005-01-01). "Look back at Weimar - and start to worry about Russia". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2005/01/01/do0101.xml. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  25. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 460–461
  26. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 154–156
  27. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 27–30
  28. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 52–55
  29. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 68–76
  30. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 87–101 & 118–125
  31. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 168–173
  32. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 197–205
  33. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 239–247
  34. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 267–277
  35. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 310–317
  36. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 336–338
  37. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 357–366
  38. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 380–388
  39. ^ Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 412–431
  40. ^ a b Ferguson, Niall The Pity of War, Basic Books: New York, 1998, 1999 pages 168–173 & 460–461
  41. ^ Ferguson, Niall (21 November 2011). "2021: Welcome to the new Europe". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203699404577044172754446162.html. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 
  42. ^ Ferguson, Niall (1999). The House of Rothschild: Money's Prophets, 1798–1848. Volume 1. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-024084-5. 
  43. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2000). The House of Rothschild: The World's Banker 1849–1998. Volume 2. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-028662-4. 
  44. ^ Kreisler, Harry (2003-11-03). "Conversation with Niall Ferguson: Being a Historian". Conversations with History. Regents of the University of California. http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people3/Ferguson/ferguson-con2.html. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  45. ^ Malcolm, Noel (13 March 2011). "Civilisation: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson: review". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/8371304/Civilisation-The-West-and-the-Rest-by-Niall-Ferguson-review.html. "The patient testing of evidence must give way to startling statistics, gripping anecdotes and snappy phrase-making. Niall Ferguson is never unintelligent and certainly never dull. Students may find this an intriguing introduction to a wide range of human history; but they will get an odd idea of how historical argument is to be conducted, if they learn it from this book." 
  46. ^ Hagan, Joe (2006-11-27). "The Once and Future Kissinger". New York. http://nymag.com/news/people/24750/. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  47. ^ "Letters: The British empire and deaths in Kenya". The Guardian (London). 16 June 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2010/jun/16/british-empire-kenya-deaths. 
  48. ^ Niall Ferguson, Eurabia?, New York Times, April 4, 2004 [1]
  49. ^ Niall Ferguson (1 March 2004), ‘The end of Europe?’, American Enterprise Institute Bradley Lecture. [2]
  50. ^ Carr, M. (2006). "You are now entering Eurabia". Race & Class 48: 1. doi:10.1177/0306396806066636.  edit
  51. ^ http://www.washingtonmonthly.com/features/2004/0406.wallace-wells.html
  52. ^ "The Last Empire, for Now". The New York Times. 2004-07-25. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE6D7173AF936A15754C0A9629C8B63. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  53. ^ Globalisation, democracy and terrorism, Eric Hobsbawm (Abacus 2008)
  54. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/factual/starttheweek_20060612.shtml
  55. ^ Ferguson, Niall (2006-11-07). "Book World Live". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2006/11/03/DI2006110301187.html. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  56. ^ Krugman Slams German Austerity.; http://www.english.rfi.fr/euro-austerity-unpopular-us-paul-krugman-quotes Krugman claims austerity unpopular.]; "A new austerity drive is sweeping across Europe." ~BBC. China adopts a "similar tactic" as E.U.; Krugman unhappy.
  57. ^ See Liquidity preference, loanable funds, and Niall Ferguson (wonkish) and Gratuitous ignorance, Paul Krugman, The Conscience of a Liberal.
  58. ^ See http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/08/17/black-cats/
  59. ^ Brad DeLong: This Is Getting Damned Annoying: Will I Ever Be Allowed to Disagree with Paul Krugman Again About Anything? (Niall Ferguson Edition), May 20, 2009.
  60. ^ Lynn, Matthew (August 23, 2009). "Professor Paul Krugman at war with Niall Ferguson over inflation". The Sunday Times (London). http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/economics/article6806419.ece?print=yes&randnum=1251277896493. Retrieved 2009-10-25. 
  61. ^ "PROFILE: Niall Ferguson". The Times (London). 14 February 2010. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article7026213.ece. 
  62. ^ Hale, Beth (8 February 2010). "The historian, his wife and a mistress living under a fatwa". dailymail.co.uk (London). http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1249247/The-historian-wife-mistress-living-fatwa.html. 
  63. ^ "Niall Ferguson and Ayaan Hirsi Ali". independent.co.uk (London). 25 February 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/corrections/niall-ferguson-and-ayaan-hirsi-ali-1909439.html. 
  64. ^ Eden, Richard (18 December 2011). "Henry Kissinger watches historian Niall Ferguson marry Ayaan Hirsi Ali under a fatwa". The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/celebritynews/8770965/Henry-Kissinger-watches-historian-Niall-Ferguson-marry-Ayaan-Hirsi-Ali-under-a-fatwa.html. Retrieved 27 September 2011. 
  65. ^ "TV historian Niall Ferguson is having a child with his Somali-born feminist partner". The Daily Mail (London). 5 June 2011. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-1394418/Niall-Ferguson-having-child-Somali-born-feminist-partner.html. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  66. ^ Duncan, Alistair (19 March 2011). "Niall Ferguson: My family values". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/mar/19/niall-ferguson-my-family-values. 
  67. ^ Duncan, Alistair (19 March 2011). "Niall Ferguson: My family values". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2011/mar/19/niall-ferguson-my-family-values. 
  68. ^ Smith, David (18 June 2006). "The Observer Profile: Niall Ferguson". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2006/jun/18/academicexperts.highereducation. 
  69. ^ Porter, Andrew. "Review of Ferguson Empire". Reviews in History. Institute of Historical Research, University of London. http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Empire/reviews/porter.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  70. ^ Wilson, Jon (8 February 2003). "False and dangerous: Revisionist TV history of Britain's empire is an attempt to justify the new imperial order". Guardian.co.uk (London: Guardian News and Media). http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2003/feb/08/highereducation.britishidentity. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  71. ^ Waslekar, Sundeep (July 2006). "A Review of: Colossus by Prof Niall Ferguson". StrategicForesight.com. Strategic Foresight Group. http://www.strategicforesight.com/bookreview_collosus.htm. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  72. ^ Roberts, Adam (14 May 2004). "Colossus by Niall Ferguson: An empire in deep denial". London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/colossus-by-niall-ferguson-563249.html. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  73. ^ "100 Notable Books of the Year". The New York Times. 2006-11-22. http://www.nytimes.com/ref/books/review/20061203notable-books.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  74. ^ Ferguson, Niall. "Empire and globalisation". Channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/e-h/empire.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  75. ^ a b "The War of the World". Channel 4. http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/t-z/warworld.html. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  76. ^ McRae, Hamish (2008-10-31). "The Ascent of Money, By Niall Ferguson—Reviews, Books—The Independent". London. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-ascent-of-money-by-niall-ferguson-980013.html. Retrieved 2008-11-30. 
  77. ^ "Civilization: Is the West History?". http://www.channel4.com/programmes/civilization-is-the-west-history. Retrieved 4 April 2011. 

General references

See also

External links

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