Fyodor Mikhaylovich Dostoyevsky ( listen); November 11, 1821 – February 9, 1881) was a Russian writer of novels, short stories and essays. He is best known for his novels Crime and Punishment, The Idiot and The Brothers Karamazov. His name has been transcribed in to English using various spellings, with some early translations rendering his first name by its English equivalent, Theodore. This is because, before the post-revolutionary orthographic reform which, amongst other things, replaced the cyrillic letter Ѳ ('th') with the cyrillic letter Ф ('f'), Dostoyevsky's name was written Ѳеодоръ (Theodor) Михайловичъ Достоевскій.
Dostoyevsky's literary works explore human psychology in the troubled political, social and spiritual context of 19th-century Russian society. Considered by many as a founder or precursor of 20th-century existentialism, Dostoyevsky wrote, with the embittered voice of the anonymous "underground man", Notes from Underground (1864), which was called the "best overture for existentialism ever written" by Walter Kaufmann. Dostoyevsky is often acknowledged by critics as one of the greatest and most prominent psychologists in world literature.
Mariinsky Hospital in Moscow, Dostoyevsky's birthplace
Dostoyevsky's father Mikhail and grandfather, Andrey, were born in modern central Ukraine. Mikhail was a doctor and a devout Christian, who practised at the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor in Moscow.
Dostoyevsky was born in Moscow to Mikhail and Maria Dostoyevsky, the second of seven children. The family lived in a small apartment in the Mariinsky Hospital grounds. The hospital was located in one of the city's worst areas near a cemetery for criminals, a lunatic asylum, and an orphanage for abandoned infants. This urban landscape made a lasting impression on the young Dostoyevsky, whose interest in and compassion for the poor, oppressed and tormented was apparent in his life and works. Although it was forbidden by his parents, Dostoyevsky liked to wander out to the hospital garden, where the patients sat to catch a glimpse of the sun. The young Dostoyevsky appreciated spending time with these patients and listening to their stories.
There are many stories of Dostoyevsky's father's despotic treatment of his children, but this despotism was tempered by his extreme care for his children and their upbringing. After returning home from work, he would take a nap while his children, ordered to keep absolutely silent, stood by their slumbering father in shifts and swatted the flies that came near his head. But the father was also careful to send his children to private schools where they would not be beaten. In the opinion of Joseph Frank, author of a definitive biography of Dostoyevsky, the father figure in The Brothers Karamazov is not based on Dostoyevsky's own father. Letters and personal accounts demonstrate that they did have a fairly loving relationship.
The young Dostoyevsky, in an 1847 portrait by Trutovsky
In 1837, shortly after his mother died of tuberculosis, Dostoyevsky and his brother were sent to St Petersburg to attend the Nikolayev Military Engineering Institute, now called the Military Engineering-Technical University. Fyodor Dostoyevsky's father died in 1839. Though it has never been proven, it is believed by some that he was murdered by his own serfs. According to one account, the serfs became enraged during one of his drunken fits of violence, and after restraining him, poured vodka into his mouth until he drowned. A similar account appears in Notes from Underground. Another story holds that Mikhail died of natural causes, and a neighboring landowner invented the story of his murder so that he could buy the estate at a cheaper price. Some, like Sigmund Freud in his 1928 article, "Dostoevsky and Parricide", have argued that his father's personality had influenced the character of Fyodor Pavlovich Karamazov, the "wicked and sentimental buffoon", father of the main characters in his 1880 novel The Brothers Karamazov, but such claims fail to withstand the scrutiny of many critics .
Dostoyevsky suffered from epilepsy and his first seizure occurred when he was nine years old. Epileptic seizures recurred sporadically throughout his life, and Dostoyevsky's experiences are thought to have formed the basis for his description of Prince Myshkin's epilepsy in his novel The Idiot and that of Smerdyakov in The Brothers Karamazov, among others.
At the Saint Petersburg Institute of Military Engineering Dostoyevsky was taught mathematics, a subject he despised. However, he also studied literature by Shakespeare, Pascal, Victor Hugo and E.T.A. Hoffmann. Though he focused on areas different from mathematics, he did well in the exams and received a commission in 1841. That year, influenced by the German poet/playwright Friedrich Schiller, he wrote two romantic plays: Mary Stuart and Boris Godunov. The plays have not been preserved. Dostoyevsky described himself as a "dreamer" when he was a young man. He also revered Schiller at that age. However, in the years during which he wrote his great masterpieces, his opinions changed and he sometimes made fun of Schiller.
Dostoyevsky was made a lieutenant in 1842, and left the Engineering Academy the following year. He completed a translation into Russian of Balzac's novel Eugénie Grandet in 1843, but it brought him little to no attention. Dostoyevsky started to write his own fiction in late 1844 after leaving the army. In 1846, his first work, the epistolary short novel, Poor Folk, printed in the almanac A Petersburg Collection (published by N. Nekrasov), was met with great acclaim. As legend has it, the editor of the magazine, poet Nikolai Nekrasov, walked into the office of liberal critic Vissarion Belinsky and announced, "A new Gogol has arisen!" Belinsky, his followers, and many others agreed. After the novel was fully published in book form at the beginning of the next year, Dostoyevsky became a literary celebrity at the age of 24.
In 1846, Belinsky and many others reacted negatively to his novella, The Double, a psychological study of a bureaucrat whose alter ego overtakes his life. Dostoyevsky's fame began to fade. Much of his work after Poor Folk received ambivalent reviews and it seemed that Belinsky's prediction that Dostoyevsky would be one of the greatest writers of Russia was mistaken.
Exile in Siberia
Statue of Dostoyevsky in Omsk
Dostoyevsky was incarcerated on 23 April 1849 for being part of the liberal intellectual group the Petrashevsky Circle. Tsar Nicholas I, after seeing the Revolutions of 1848 in Europe, was harsh on any type of underground organization which he felt could put autocracy in jeopardy. On November 16 of that year, Dostoyevsky, along with other members of the Petrashevsky Circle, was sentenced to death. After a mock execution, in which he and other members of the group stood outside in freezing weather waiting to be shot by a firing squad, Dostoyevsky's sentence was commuted to four years of exile with hard labour at a katorga prison camp in Omsk, Siberia. Later, Dostoyevsky described his years of suffering to his brother, as being, "shut up in a coffin." In describing the dilapidated barracks which "should have been torn down years ago", he wrote:
In summer, intolerable closeness; in winter, unendurable cold. All the floors were rotten. Filth on the floors an inch thick; one could slip and fall... We were packed like herrings in a barrel... There was no room to turn around. From dusk to dawn it was impossible not to behave like pigs... Fleas, lice, and black beetles by the bushel...
This experience inspired him to write The House of the Dead.
Dostoyevsky was released from prison in 1854, and was required to serve in the Siberian Regiment. He spent the following five years as a private (and later lieutenant) in the Regiment's Seventh Line Battalion, stationed at the fortress of Semipalatinsk, now in Kazakhstan. While there, he began a relationship with Maria Dmitrievna Isayeva, the wife of an acquaintance in Siberia. After her husband's death, they married in February 1857.
Post-prison maturation as a writer
Dostoyevsky (right) and the Kazakh
scholar Shokan Walikhanuli in 1859
Dostoyevsky's experiences in prison and the army resulted in major changes in his political and religious convictions. First, his ordeal somehow caused him to become disillusioned with "Western" ideas; he repudiated the contemporary Western European philosophical movements, and instead paid greater tribute in his writings to traditional, rustic Russian values exemplified in the Slavophile concept of sobornost. But even more significantly, he had what his biographer Joseph Frank describes as a conversion experience in prison, which greatly strengthened his Christian, and specifically Orthodox, faith. Dostoyevsky would later depict his conversion experience in the short story, The Peasant Marey (1876).
In his writings, Dostoyevsky started to extol the virtues of humility, submission, and suffering. He now displayed a much more critical stance on contemporary European philosophy and turned with intellectual rigour against the Nihilist and Socialist movements; and much of his post-prison work—particularly the novel, The Possessed, and the essays, The Diary of a Writer—contains both criticism of socialist and nihilist ideas, as well as thinly veiled parodies of contemporary Western-influenced Russian intellectuals (Timofey Granovskiy), revolutionaries (Sergey Nyechayev), and even fellow novelists (Ivan Turgyenyev). In social circles, Dostoyevsky allied himself with well-known conservatives, such as the statesman Konstantin Pobyedonostsyev. His post-prison essays praised the tenets of the Pochvyennichyestvo movement, a late-19th century Russian nativist ideology closely aligned with Slavophilism.
Dostoyevsky's post-prison fiction abandoned the Western European-style domestic melodramas and quaint character studies of his youthful work in favor of dark, more complex storylines and situations, played-out by brooding, tortured characters—often styled partly on Dostoyevsky himself—who agonized over existential themes of spiritual torment, religious awakening, and the psychological confusion caused by the conflict between traditional Russian culture and the influx of modern, Western philosophy. Nonetheless, this does not take from the debt which Dostoyevsky owed to earlier Western-influenced writers such as Gogol whose work grew from the irrational and anti-authoritarian spiritualist ideas contained within the Romantic movement which had immediately preceded Dostoyevsky in West Europe. However, Dostoyevsky's major novels focused on the idea that utopia and positivist ideas were unrealistic and unobtainable.
Later literary career
Dostoyevsky's last address where he died, now a memorial and literary museum, St Petersburg.
In December 1859, Dostoyevsky returned to Saint Petersburg, where he ran a series of unsuccessful literary journals, Vremya (Time) and Epokha (Epoch), with his older brother Mikhail. The former was shut down as a consequence of its coverage of the Polish Uprising of 1863. That year Dostoyevsky traveled to Europe and frequented gambling casinos. There he met Apollinaria Suslova, the model for Dostoyevsky's "proud women", such as the two characters named Katerina Ivanovna, in Crime and Punishment and in The Brothers Karamazov.
Dostoyevsky was devastated by his wife's death in 1864, which was followed shortly thereafter by his brother's death. He was financially crippled by business debts; furthermore, he decided to assume the responsibility of his deceased brother's outstanding debts, as well providing for his wife's son from her earlier marriage and his brother's widow and children. Dostoyevsky sank into a deep depression, frequenting gambling parlors and accumulating massive losses at the tables.
Dostoyevsky suffered from an acute gambling compulsion and its consequences. He completed Crime and Punishment in a mad hurry because he was in urgent need of an advance from his publisher. He had been left practically penniless after a gambling spree. Dostoyevsky wrote The Gambler simultaneously in order to satisfy an agreement with his publisher Stellovsky who, if he did not receive a new work, would have claimed the copyrights to all of Dostoyevsky's writings.
Motivated by the dual wish to escape his creditors at home and to visit the casinos abroad, Dostoyevsky traveled to Western Europe. There, he attempted to rekindle a love affair with Suslova, but she refused his marriage proposal. Dostoyevsky was heartbroken, but soon met Anna Grigorevna Snitkina, a twenty-year-old stenographer. Shortly before marrying her in 1867, he dictated The Gambler to her. From 1873 to 1881 he published the Writer's Diary, a monthly journal of short stories, sketches, and articles on current events. The journal was an enormous success.
Dostoyevsky influenced, and was himself influenced, by the philosopher Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov. Solovyov was the inspiration for the characters Ivan Karamazov and Alyosha Karamazov.
In 1877, Dostoyevsky gave the keynote eulogy at the funeral of his friend, the poet Nekrasov, to much controversy . On 8 June 1880, shortly before he died, he gave his famous Pushkin speech at the unveiling of the Pushkin monument in Moscow. In his later years, Dostoyevsky lived for an extended period at the resort of Staraya Russa in northwestern Russia, which was closer to Saint Petersburg and less expensive than German resorts.
Dostoyevsky died in St. Petersburg on 9 February [O.S. 28 January] 1881 of a lung hemorrhage associated with emphysema and an epileptic seizure. A copy of the New Testament Bible given to him in Siberia sat on his lap. He was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery in Saint Petersburg. Forty thousand mourners attended his funeral.
His tombstone reads; Verily, Verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. (Excerpt from John 12:24, which is also the epigraph of his final novel, The Brothers Karamazov.)
The rented apartment where he died and spent the last few years of his life is where he wrote his final novel The Brothers Karamazov. The apartment, situated in a building at 5 Kuznechnyi pereulok, has been restored from old photographs to how it looked when he lived there. It opened in 1971 as the Dostoyevsky House Museum and is a popular tourist attraction in the city.
Some, like journalist Otto Friedrich, consider Dostoyevsky to be one of Europe's major novelists, while others like Vladimir Nabokov maintain that from a point of view of enduring art and individual genius, he is a rather mediocre writer who produced wastelands of literary platitudes.
Dostoyevsky promoted in his novels religious moralities, particularly those of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Indeed, "Dostoyevsky and the Religion of Suffering," the essay devoted to Dostoyevsky in Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé's Le roman russe (1886), is widely considered to be the most influential early analysis of the novelist's work, introducing Dostoyevsky and other Russian novelists to the West. Nabokov argued in his University courses at Cornell, that such religious propaganda, rather than artistic qualities, was the main reason Dostoyevsky was praised and regarded as a 'Prophet' in Soviet Russia.
James Joyce and Virginia Woolf praised his prose. Ernest Hemingway cited Dostoyevsky as a major influence on his work, in his posthumous collection of sketches A Moveable Feast. Kurt Vonnegut in his famous novel Slaughterhouse-Five mentions Dostoevsky in such way:
[Eliot] Rosewater said an interesting thing to Billy [Pilgrim] one time ... He said that everything there was to know about life is in "The Brothers Karamazov," by Fyodor Dostoevsky. "But that isn't enough anymore," said Rosewater.
In a book of interviews with Arthur Power (Conversations with James Joyce), Joyce praised Dostoyevsky's prose:
...he is the man more than any other who has created modern prose, and intensified it to its present-day pitch. It was his explosive power which shattered the Victorian novel with its simpering maidens and ordered commonplaces; books which were without imagination or violence.
In her essay The Russian Point of View, Virginia Woolf said:
The novels of Dostoevsky are seething whirlpools, gyrating sandstorms, waterspouts which hiss and boil and suck us in. They are composed purely and wholly of the stuff of the soul. Against our wills we are drawn in, whirled round, blinded, suffocated, and at the same time filled with a giddy rapture. Out of Shakespeare there is no more exciting reading.
Dostoyevsky displayed a nuanced understanding of human psychology in his major works. He created an opus of vitality and almost hypnotic power, characterized by feverishly dramatized scenes where his characters are frequently in scandalous and explosive atmospheres, passionately engaged in Socratic dialogues. The quest for God, the problem of evil and suffering of the innocents haunt the majority of his novels.
His characters fall into a few distinct categories: humble and self-effacing Christians (Prince Myshkin, Sonya Marmeladova, Alyosha Karamazov, Saint Ambrose of Optina), self-destructive nihilists (Svidrigailov, Smerdyakov, Stavrogin, the underground man), cynical debauchees (Fyodor Karamazov, Dmitri Karamazov), and rebellious intellectuals (Raskolnikov, Ivan Karamazov, Ippolit); also, his characters are driven by ideas rather than by ordinary biological or social imperatives. In comparison with Tolstoy, whose characters are realistic, the characters of Dostoyevsky are usually more symbolic of the ideas they represent, thus Dostoyevsky is often cited as one of the forerunners of Literary Symbolism, especially Russian Symbolism (see Alexander Blok).
Dostoyevsky statue, erected 1918, in front of Mariinsky Hospital, the writer's birthplace in Moscow.
Dostoyevsky's novels are compressed in time (many cover only a few days) and this enables him to get rid of one of the dominant traits of realist prose, the corrosion of human life in the process of the time flux; his characters primarily embody spiritual values, and these are, by definition, timeless. Other themes include suicide, wounded pride, collapsed family values, spiritual regeneration through suffering, rejection of the West and affirmation of the Russian Orthodox Church and of tsarism. Literary scholars such as Mikhail Bakhtin have characterized his work as "polyphonic": Dostoyevsky does not appear to aim for a "single vision", and beyond simply describing situations from various angles, Dostoyevsky engendered fully dramatic novels of ideas where conflicting views and characters are left to develop unevenly into unbearable crescendo.
Dostoyevsky and the other giant of late 19th century Russian literature, Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy, never met in person, even though each praised, criticized, and influenced the other (Dostoyevsky remarked of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina that it was a "flawless work of art"; Henri Troyat reports that Tolstoy once remarked of Crime and Punishment that, "Once you read the first few chapters you know pretty much how the novel will end up"). There was a meeting arranged, but there was a confusion about where the meeting was to take place and they never rescheduled. Tolstoy wept when he learned of Dostoyevsky's death. A copy of The Brothers Karamazov was found on the nightstand next to Tolstoy's deathbed at the Astapovo railway station.
Dostoyevsky's tomb at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery
Dostoyevsky on Jews in Russia
Several writers and critics (including Joseph Frank, Maxim D. Shrayer, Stephen Cassedy, David I. Goldstein, Gary Saul Morson, and Felix Dreizin) have offered various insights and suppositions regarding Dostoyevsky’s views on Jews and organized Jewry in Russia — one such view is that Dostoyevsky perceived Jewish ethnocentrism and Jewish influence to be directly threatening the Russian peasantry in the border regions. In A Writer's Diary, Dostoyevsky wrote:
Thus, Jewry is thriving precisely there where the people are still ignorant, or not free, or economically backward. It is there that Jewry has a champ libre. And instead of raising, by its influence, the level of education, instead of increasing knowledge, generating economic fitness in the native population—instead of this the Jew, wherever he has settled, has still more humiliated and debauched the people; there humaneness was still more debased and the educational level fell still lower; there inescapable, inhuman misery, and with it despair, spread still more disgustingly. Ask the native population in our border regions: What is propelling the Jew—and has been propelling him for centuries? You will receive a unanimous answer: mercilessness. He has been prompted so many centuries only by pitilessness to us, only by the thirst for our sweat and blood.
And, in truth, the whole activity of the Jews in these border regions of ours consisted of rendering the native population as much as possible inescapably dependent on them, taking advantage of the local laws. They have always managed to be on friendly terms with those upon whom the people were dependent. Point to any other tribe from among Russian aliens which could rival the Jew by his dreadful influence in this connection! You will find no such tribe. In this respect the Jew preserves all his originality as compared with other Russian aliens, and of course, the reason therefore is that status of status of his, that spirit of which specifically breathes pitilessness for everything that is not Jew, with disrespect for any people and tribe, for every human creature who is not a Jew...
Dostoyevsky has been noted as both having expressed antisemitic sentiments as well as standing up for the rights of the Jewish people. In a review of Joseph Frank's book, The Mantle of the Prophet, Orlando Figes notes that A Writer's Diary is "filled with politics, literary criticism, and pan-Slav diatribes about the virtues of the Russian Empire, [and] represents a major challenge to the Dostoyevsky fan, not least on account of its frequent expressions of anti-semitism." Frank, in his foreword for David I. Goldstein's book Dostoevsky and the Jews, attempts to place Dostoyevsky as a product of his time. Frank notes that Dostoyevsky made antisemitic remarks, but that Dostoyevsky's writing and stance, by and large, was one where Dostoyevsky held a great deal of guilt for his comments and positions that were antisemitic.
Steven Cassedy alleges in his book, Dostoevsky's Religion, that much of the depiction of Dostoyevsky's views as antisemitic omits that Dostoyevsky expressed support for the equal rights of the Russian Jewish population, an unpopular position in Russia at the time. Cassedy also notes that this criticism of Dostoyevsky also appears to deny his sincerity when he said that he was for equal rights for the Russian Jewish populace and the serfs of his own country (since neither group at that point in history had equal rights). Cassedy again notes when Dostoyevsky stated that he did not hate Jewish people and was not antisemitic. Even though Dostoyevsky spoke of the potential negative influence of Jewish people, Dostoyevsky advised Czar Alexander II of Russia to give them rights to positions of influence in Russian society, such as allowing them access to Professorships at Universities. According to Cassedy, labeling Dostoyevsky anti-Semitic does not take into consideration Dostoyevsky's expressed desire to peacefully reconcile Jews and Christians into a single universal brotherhood of all mankind.
Dostoyevsky and existentialism
With the publication of Crime and Punishment, in 1866, Dostoyevsky became one of Russia's most prominent authors. Will Durant, in The Pleasures of Philosophy (1953), called Dostoyevsky one of the founding fathers of the philosophical movement known as existentialism, and cited Notes from Underground in particular as a founding work of existentialism. For Dostoyevsky, war is the people's rebellion against the idea that reason guides everything, and thus, reason is not the ultimate guiding principle for either history or mankind. After his 1849 exile to the city of Omsk, Siberia, Dostoyevsky focused heavily on notions of suffering and despair in many of his works.
Friedrich Nietzsche referred to Dostoyevsky as "the only psychologist from whom I have something to learn: he belongs to the happiest windfalls of my life, happier even than the discovery of Stendhal." He said that Notes from Underground "cried truth from the blood." According to Mihajlo Mihajlov's "The Great Catalyzer: Nietzsche and Russian Neo-Idealism", Nietzsche constantly refers to Dostoyevsky in his notes and drafts throughout the winter of 1886–1887. Nietzsche also wrote abstracts of several of Dostoyevsky's works.
Freud wrote an article titled Dostoevsky and Parricide, asserting that the greatest works in world literature are all about parricide; though he is critical of Dostoyevsky's work overall, his inclusion of The Brothers Karamazov among the three greatest works of literature is remarkable.
Dostoyevsky's works of fiction includes 2 translations, 15 novels and novellas, and 17 short stories. Many of his longer novels were first published in serialized form in various literary magazines and journals (see the individual articles). The years given below indicate the year in which the novel's final part or first complete book edition was published. Because English translations of Dostoyevsky's works have differentiated throughout the years, many of his novels and short stories are known by several titles.
Novels and novellas
- Poor Folk (Бедные люди [Bednye lyudi], 1846)
- The Double: A Petersburg Poem (Двойник: Петербургская поэма [Dvoynik: Peterburgskaya poema], 1846)
- Netochka Nezvanova (Неточка Незванова [Netochka Nezvanova], 1849)
- Uncle's Dream (Дядюшкин сон [Dyadyushkin son], 1859)
- The Village of Stepanchikovo (Село Степанчиково и его обитатели [Selo Stepanchikovo i ego obitateli], 1859)
- Humiliated and Insulted (Униженные и оскорбленные [Unizhennye i oskorblennye], 1861)
- The House of the Dead (Записки из мертвого дома [Zapiski iz mertvogo doma], 1862)
- Notes from Underground (Записки из подполья [Zapiski iz podpolya], 1864)
- Crime and Punishment (Преступление и наказание [Prestuplenie i nakazanie], 1866)
- The Gambler (Игрок [Igrok], 1867)
- The Idiot (Идиот [Idiot], 1869). Translated into English by Henry Carlisle and Olga Carlisle.
- The Eternal Husband (Вечный муж [Vechnyj muzh], 1870)
- Demons (Бесы [Besy], 1872)
- The Adolescent (Подросток [Podrostok], 1875)
- The Brothers Karamazov (Братья Карамазовы [Brat'ya Karamazovy], 1880)
- "Mr. Prokharchin" ("Господин Прохарчин" ["Gospodin Prokharchin"], 1846)
- "Novel in Nine Letters" ("Роман в девяти письмах" ["Roman v devyati pis'mah"], 1847)
- "The Landlady" ("Хозяйка" ["Hozyajka"], 1847)
- "The Jealous Husband" ("Чужая жена и муж под кроватью" ["Chuzhaya zhena i muzh pod krovat'yu"], 1848)
- "A Weak Heart" ("Слабое сердце" ["Slaboe serdze"], 1848)
- "Polzunkov" ("Ползунков" ["Polzunkov"], 1848)
- "The Honest Thief" ("Честный вор" ["Chestnyj vor"], 1848)
- "The Christmas Tree and a Wedding" ("Елка и свадьба" ["Elka i svad'ba"], 1848)
- "White Nights" ("Белые ночи" ["Belye nochi"], 1848)
- "A Little Hero" ("Маленький герой" ["Malen'kij geroj"], 1849)
- "A Nasty Anecdote" ("Скверный анекдот" ["Skvernyj anekdot"], 1862)
- "The Crocodile" ("Крокодил" ["Krokodil"], 1865)
- "Bobok" ("Бобок" ["Bobok"], 1873)
- "The Heavenly Christmas Tree" ("Мальчик у Христа на ёлке" ["Mal'chik u Hrista na elke"], 1876)
- "The Meek One" ("Кроткая" ["Krotkaja"], 1876)
- "The Peasant Marey" ("Мужик Марей" ["Muzhik Marej"], 1876)
- "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" ("Сон смешного человека" ["Son smeshnogo cheloveka"], 1877)
- A Writer's Diary, collected essays
- Winter Notes on Summer Impressions (1863)
- A Writer's Diary (Дневник писателя [Dnevnik pisatelya], 1873–1881)
- Letters (collected in English translations in five volumes of Complete Letters)
- ^ Old Style date October 30, 1821 – January 29, 1881.
- ^ Ukrainian origin of Dostoyevsky (Українське коріння Достоєвського)
- ^ Existentialism: from Dostoyevsky to Sartre, ed. Walter Kaufmann, Penguin Books, 1989 ISBN 0452009308 p. 12
- ^ a b "Russian literature". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/513793/Russian-literature. Retrieved 2008-04-11. "Dostoyevsky, who is generally regarded as one of the supreme psychologists in world literature, sought to demonstrate the compatibility of Christianity with the deepest truths of the psyche."
- ^ ORIGIN OF THE DOSTOYEVSKY FAMILY ... become priests in Ukraine.
- ^ Dostoevsky: his life and work, Princeton University.
- ^ The Best Short Stories of Dostoevsky Translated with an Introduction by David Magarshack. New York: The Modern Library, Random House; 1971.
- ^ Russian: Военный инженерно-технический университет
- ^ Notes from the Underground Coradella Collegita Bookshelf edition, About the Author.
- ^ Epilepsy.com Famous authors with epilepsy.
- ^ Dostoyevsky, Fyodor, Richard Pevear, and Larissa Volokhonsky. The Idiot. New York: Vintage, 2001. Print. Introduction pp. xix
- ^ Russian: Военный инженерно-технический университет,
- ^ Frank 76. Quoted from Pisma, I: 135–37.
- ^ Vladimir Nabokov (1981) Lectures on Russian Literature, lecture on Russian Writers, Censors, and Readers, p.14
- ^ Dostoevsky the Thinker James P. Scanlan. Dostoevsky the Thinker. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002. xiii, p. 251
- ^ Dostoevsky's View of Evil Reprinted from In Communion, April 1998.
- ^ Sirotkina, Irina (1996). Diagnosing Literary Genius: A Cultural History of Psychiatry in Russia, 1880. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 55. ISBN 0801867827.
- ^ "A few words about Mikhail Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky". F. M. Dostoyevsky. Collection of works in 15 volumes. 11. Leningrad: Nauka. 1993. pp. 361–365.
- ^ "Fyodor Dostoevsky". Russia Today (RT). http://russiapedia.rt.com/prominent-russians/literature/fyodor-dostoevsky/. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- ^ Dostoevsky, Fyodor (2004) [First published 1879–1880]. "Endnotes". The Brothers Karamazov. Barnes & Noble Classics. Notes and Introduction by Maire Jaanus. Translated by Constance Garnett. New York, NY: Barnes & Noble Books. p. 703. ISBN 978-1-59308-045-7. OCLC 34325193. "Anna Grigorievna Snitkina, Dostoyevsky's second wife, was a stenographer to whom Dostoyevsky dictated his novel The Gambler in 1866; they married the following year."
- ^ Zouboff, Peter, Solovyov on Godmanhood: Solovyov’s Lectures on Godmanhood Harmon Printing House: Poughkeepsie, New York, 1944; see Czeslaw Milosz’s introduction to Solovyov’s War, Progress and the End of History. Lindisfarne Press: Hudson, New York 1990.
- ^ Dostoyevsky Az.lib.ru Пушкинская речь (Pushkin's style) (in Russian)
- ^ Dostoevsky, Fyodor; Introduction to The Idiot, Wordsworth Ed. Ltd, 1996.
- ^ Woodworth, Bradley; Harold Bloom, Constance Richards (2005). Harold Bloom. ed. St Petersburg. Infobase Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 0791083845, 9780791083840. http://books.google.com/books?id=tMn6qHyTIywC&dq=dostoevsky+house+museum,+St+Petersburg&source=gbs_navlinks_s. Retrieved 19 November 2010.
- ^ Otto Friedrich (6 September 1971). "Freaking-Out with Fyodor". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,943893,00.html?promoid=googlep. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
- ^ Nabokov, Vladimir. “Lectures on Russian Literature”. Harcourt, 1981, p. 98
- ^ Nabokov, Vladimir. “Lectures on Russian Literature”. Harcourt, 1981, p. 104
- ^ The Russian Point of View Virginia Woolf.
- ^ Dostoievsky by A. Steinberg p. 112
- ^ Letter from Leo Tolstoy to Nikolai Strakhov, from Letters of Fyodor Michailovitch Dostoevsky to his Family and Friends, page 337, Chatto and Windus, London, 1914.
- ^ Shrayer, Maxim D. “The Jewish Question and The Brothers Karamazov.” In: A New Word on “The Brothers Karamazov.” Ed. Robert Louis Jackson. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 2004. 210-233
- ^ Dostoevsky, F. M. The Diary of a Writer, trans. Boris Brasol (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons), 1949.
- ^ Figes, Orlando. "Dostoevsky's leap of faith This volume concludes a magnificent biography which is also a cultural history", Sunday Telegraph (London), p.13. September 29, 2002.
- ^ Frank, Joseph. "Foreword" p. xiv. in Goldstein, David I. Dostoevsky and the Jews, University of Texas Press, 1981. ISBN 0292715285
- ^ a b c d Cassedy, Steven (2005). Dostoevsky's Religion. Stanford University Press. pp. 67–80. ISBN 0804751374.
- Avsey, Ignat (2008). "Extra Material on Fyodor Dostoevsky's Humiliated and Insulted". Humiliated and Insulted. Trans. Avsey. London: Oneworld Classics. ISBN 978-1847490452.
- Frank, Joseph (1979) [First published 1976]. Dostoevsky: The Seeds of Revolt, 1821-1849. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691013558. http://books.google.com/books?id=pDEAXltygUIC.
- Frank, Joseph (1987) [First published 1983]. Dostoevsky: The Years of Ordeal, 1850-1859. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691014227. http://books.google.com/books?id=K98hhw0IEHgC.
- Frank, Joseph (1988) [First published 1986]. Dostoevsky: The Stir of Liberation, 1860-1865. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691014524. http://books.google.com/books?id=QJj6qb6Rh3AC.
- Frank, Joseph (1997) [First published 1995]. Dostoevsky: The Miraculous Years, 1865-1871. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691015873. http://books.google.com/books?id=iAs4Lz5yog0C.
- Frank, Joseph (2003) [First published 2002]. Dostoevsky: The Mantle of the Prophet, 1871-1881. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0691115696. http://books.google.com/books?id=mQqonU-pweEC.
- Mochulsky, Konstantin (1973) [First published 1967]. Dostoevsky: His Life and Work. Trans. Minihan, Michael A. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691012997. http://books.google.com/books?id=mDKphT8_XLsC.