Электронная книга: Josef Kajetán Tyl «Strakonický dudák»

Strakonický dudák

Издательство: "Public Domain"

электронная книга

Скачать бесплатно на Litres

Josef Kajetán Tyl

Josef Kajetán Tyl (4 February 1808 Kutná Hora – 11 July 1856 Pilsen) was a significant Czech dramatist, writer and actor. He was a notable figure of the Czech National Revival movement and is best known as the author of the current national anthem of Czech Republic titled "Kde domov můj".


Josef Kajetán Tyl was the first-born son of Jiří Tyl, a tailor and retired military band oboe player, and his wife Barbora née Králíková, daughter of a miller and groats maker. He was christened "Josef František", yet this name was changed into Josef Kajetán when he underwent confirmation at the age of eleven. The family surname had several written forms - Tylly, Tylli, Tilly or Tyll - and was later changed to Tyl. Josef Kajetán had four younger siblings: one brother and three sisters, but except sister Anna none of them survived till adulthood.

After finishing elementary school, Josef Kajetán studied at a grammar school in Prague and in Hradec Králové. Among his teachers belonged the leading Czech linguist and writer Josef Jungmann and the playwright Václav Kliment Klicpera. After finishing his studies at the grammar school, he started to study philosophy in Prague.

Already as a student, Tyl started to be active in theatre and finally left school to become a member of the Hilmer travelling theatre company. When the company disbanded after two years of journeying around the countryside, he returned to Prague and got a job of a clerk in an infantry regiment's office. In his free time he wrote theatre plays and worked as an actor at the Estates Theatre. Due to his abilities he could leave his job in the military in 1842, as he was given a full time job at the Estates Theatre, where he became the director, organizer and playwright of the Czech ensemble in the otherwise mainly German theatre. In 1833 Tyl became a redactor of a renewed Czech magazine called "Květy" (Blossoms), which exists until today. He was also a redactor of the magazines "Vlastimil" and "Pražský posel" (Prague Messenger), and of the newspaper "Sedlské noviny" (Peasant newspapers), that were later banned because of his political involvement.

Tyl used several pen names that were often derived from the name of his home town Kutná Hora, for example Horský, Horník, Kutnohorský and Vítek.

In Tyl became politically active and was briefly a member of the Austrian parliament in Vienna. Because he fought for the independence of the Czech nation from the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, he was later marked as politically unreliable by the authorities and expelled from the Estates Theatre. He wanted to found his own travelling theatre company but his request was rejected, so in 1851 he joined an existing one and left for a tour, together with his family. Yet the theatre company did not fare well, and the Tyl family ended up in powerty. In 1856, during his theatre's stay in Pilsen, the 48 years old Tyl died of an unknown illness and was buried at a local cemetery.

A theatre in Pilsen was later named in his honor.


Tyl was an author of several novels and short stories, he is however most famous for his about 20 theatre plays, which can be divided into several groups.

Plays describing the life of the Czech society in Tyl's time period

"Paličova dcera" (Arsonist's daughter)

"Pražský flamendr" (Prague playboy)

"Bankrotář" (Bankrupter)

"Chudý kejklíř" (Poor Juggler)

Plays portraying famous events from Czech history (especially the Hussite movement)

"Jan Hus"

"Žižka z Trocnova" (Žižka of Trocnov)

"Krvavý soud aneb kutnohorští havíři" (A Bloody Verdict: The Miners of Kutná Hora)

Plays featuring fairy tale characters (fairies, witches)

"Strakonický dudák" (The Bagpiper of Strakonice) – one of his most famous works

"Lesní panna aneb cesta do Ameriky" (The Forest Maiden: A Journey to America)

"Tvrdohlavá žena" (The Stubborn Woman)

"Jiříkovo vidění" (George's Vision)

"Čert na zemi" (Devil On Earth)

Other plays

"Paní Marjánka, matka pluku" (Lady Marjánka, Mother of the Regiment)

"Fidlovačka" – a song from this play, named Kde domov můj, became Czech national anthem in 1918

"Slepý mládenec" (The Blind Young Man)


Tyl's wife was a Czech actress Magdalena Forchheimová (1803 - 1870), who performed under the pen name "Skalná". Tyl met her in 1829 during his first tour with a travelling theatre company, where they both performed. They married on 28 January 1839, yet their marriage stayed childless, as after a still birth Magdalena couldn't have any more children.

In 1841 Tyl fell in love with his wife's much younger sister Anna, who was also a talented actress and performed under the pen name Anna Rajská (1824 - 1903). They started an affair, Tyl did not divorce or leave his wife however and all three of them lived together in one household till his death. Anna bore her brother-in-law eight illegitimate children, their youngest son was born one month after Tyl died. Their sons went by their mother's surname Forchheim, daughters were allowed by the authorities to use father's surname Tyl.

On 24 April 1861, five years after Tyl's death, Anna married Tyl's colleague, actor Josef Ladislav Turnovský, with whom she had three more children. Turnovský took care not only of Tyl's family but also of his legacy by saving his manuscripts and publishing his works.

Children of Josef Kajetán Tyl

*Josef Otakar Forchheim (1843-1907), doctor of philosophy and gymnasium professor in Pilsen, buried in Prague at the Slavin cemetery

*Jan Stanislav Forchheim (1845 – 1890), turner and military band musician

*Marie Eleonora Tylová (1848 – 1868), actress, buried in the village of Morkovice u Kroměříže

*Eliška Tylová (1850 - 1909), governess and actress, buried in Prague at the Slavin cemetery, alongside her mother

*Vojtěch Josef Forchheim (1851 – 1862), drowned as a child in the river Moldau

*František K. Forchheim (1853 - 1902), actor of the National Theatre, used one of his father's pen names, "Horník", as his own pen name

*stillborn boy (1855 – 1855)

*Kajetán Josef Forchheim (1856 - ?), educated in bakery, later disappeared, fate unknown


*"Osudy těch druhých aneb Lidé kolem Tyla" by Helena Pospíchalová

*"Czechs in History - Josef Kajetan Tyl" by Alena Škodová

External links

* [http://www.radio.cz/en/article/28441"Czechs in History" article on Radio Praha website]

Источник: Josef Kajetán Tyl

Другие книги схожей тематики:

АвторКнигаОписаниеГодЦенаТип книги
Josef Kajetán TylStrakonický dudák — @Public Domain, @ @ @ @ Подробнее...
электронная книга

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Strakonický Dudák — 12° Strakonický Dudák is a brand of the Czech Republic s brewery Měšťanský pivovar Strakonice, a.s. Together with Nektar, it is distributed in the Strakonice District region. The name refers to a fictional bagpipe player who lived in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Сводный алфавитный список фильмов. В — В «В добрый путь» (1973) «В зоне особого внимания» (1978) «В 26 го не стрелять» (1967) «В 5 часов пополудни» («A las cinco de latarde», 1960, исп.) «В апреле 30 дней» («Ein April hat 30 Tage», 1979, ГДР) «В Баку дуют ветры» (1975) «В безлюдном… …   Кино: Энциклопедический словарь

  • Josef Kajetán Tyl — (4 February 1808 Kutná Hora ndash; 11 July 1856 Pilsen) was a significant Czech dramatist, writer and actor. He was a notable figure of the Czech National Revival movement and is best known as the author of the current national anthem of Czech… …   Wikipedia

  • Václav Trojan — (April 24 1907 – July 5 1983) was a Czech composer of classical music best known for his film scores. Trojan studied composition at the Prague Conservatory under Jaroslav Křička and Otakar Ostrčil from 1923 to 1927. He continued his studies in… …   Wikipedia

  • Karel Steklý — (* 9. Oktober 1903 in Prag, Österreich Ungarn; † 5. Juli 1987 in Prag, Tschechoslowakei) war ein tschechischer Filmregisseur und Drehbuchautor. Er gilt als einer der großen Altmeister des tschechischen Films. Steklý schrieb bereits in den 1930er… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Josef Režný — est une éminence de l ethnographie tchèque, chef des joueurs de cornemuse de Strakonice. Il est d ailleurs né à Strakonice le 2 février 1924. Dès son enfance, il adore la musique populaire. Il a joué du violon, du violon alto et de la contrebasse …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Karel Stekly — Karel Steklý Karel Steklý est un scénariste et réalisateur tchèque né le 9 octobre 1903 à Prague et décédé le 5 juillet 1987 à Prague. Sommaire 1 Filmographie 2 Comme scénariste 3 Comme réalisateur …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Karel Steklý — est un scénariste et réalisateur tchèque né le 9 octobre 1903 à Prague et décédé le 5 juillet 1987 à Prague. Sommaire 1 Filmographie 2 Comme scénariste 3 Comme réalisateur …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Тыл — Иосиф Каетан (Josef Kajetan Tyl, 1808 1856) чешский драматург и прозаик эпохи национально буржуазного возрождения. В драматических произведениях Т. является учеником и продолжателем деятельности выдающегося драматурга Клицперы (V. K. Klicpera,… …   Литературная энциклопедия

  • СТЕКЛЫ Карел — СТЕКЛЫ (Stekly) Карел (1903 87), чешский кинорежиссер. Фильмы: «Сирена» (1947), «Бравый солдат Швейк» (2 серии, 1957), «За рулем враг» (1974), «Каждому свое небо» (1982) и др.1933 U svateho Antonicka сценарист 1937 Harmonika сценарист 1938 Cestou …   Энциклопедия кино

  • Готт, Карел — Карел Готт Karel Gott …   Википедия

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.