[Caroline Davies [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml;jsessionid=3ZW1KEH4UDU5DQFIQMGSFGGAVCBQWIV0?xml=/news/2001/07/20/njef420.xml&page=1 "He lied his way to the top",] "Daily Telegraph", 20 July 2001 [website p1] . Retrieved on 20 April 2007.] ]
Archer left school after passing O-levels, in English Literature, Art, and History. He worked in a number of jobs, including training with the army and for the police. He lasted only a few months in either position, but he fared better as a Physical Education teacher, first at Vicar's Hill School in Hampshire, and later at the more prestigious Dover College in Kent. As a teacher he was popular with pupils and reported by some to have had good motivational skills.
He gained a place at Brasenose College, Oxford to study for a one-year diploma in education, though he stayed for three years, gaining an academic qualification in teaching awarded by the Oxford Department for Education. There have been claims that Archer provided false evidence of his academic qualifications, for instance the apparent citing of an American institution which was actually a bodybuilding club, in gaining admission to Oxford University.
[ [http://sunday.ninemsn.com.au/sunday/feature_stories/article_890.asp?s=1 "Author of his own Demise",] ninemsn, 22 July 2001. Retrieved on 20 April 2007.] His website is careful to omit whether he was a full undergraduate at Oxford (he was not) and drops in casual references to his Oxford 'Principal' to sustain this illusion.While at Oxford he was moderately successful in athletics, competing in sprinting and hurdling. He also made a name raising money for the then little-known charity Oxfam, obtaining the support of The Beatles in a charity fundraising drive. The band accepted his invitation to visit the senior common room of Brasenose College, where they were photographed with Archer and dons of the college, although they didn't play there. The critic Sheridan Morley, then a student at Merton, was present and recalled the occasion:
"At the interval I went to the toilet, and there beside me was Ringo Starr. He asked if I knew this Jeffrey Archer bloke. I said everyone in Oxford was trying to work out who he was. Ringo said: 'He strikes me as a nice enough fella, but he's the kind of bloke who would bottle your piss and sell it.' "It was during this period that he met his wife, Mary. They married in July 1966.
After leaving Oxford, he continued as a charity fundraiser, working for the National Birthday Trust, a medical charity. He also began a career in politics, serving as a councillor on the Greater London Council from 1967.
One organisation Archer worked for, the United Nations Association, alleged discrepancies in his claims for expenses, and details appeared in the press in a scrambled form. Archer brought a defamation action against the former Conservative member of parliament Humphry Berkeley, chairman of the UNA, as the source of the allegations. The case was settled out of court after three years. Berkeley tried to persuade Conservative Central Office that Archer was unsuitable as a parliamentary candidate, but a selection meeting at Louth disregarded any doubts.
Archer set up his own fund-raising company, Arrow Enterprises, in 1969. That same year he opened an art gallery, the Archer Gallery, in Mayfair. The gallery specialised in modern art, including pieces by the acclaimed sculptor and painter Leon Underwood. The gallery ultimately lost money, however, and Archer sold it two years later.
Member of Parliament
At 29, he was elected as Member of Parliament (MP) for the Lincolnshire constituency of Louth, holding the seat for the Conservative Party in a by-election on 4 December 1969. Archer beat Ian Gow to the selection after winning over a substantial proportion of younger members at the selection meeting. Archer's campaign colour was a dayglo orange/pink with a blue arrow; the political parties in Lincolnshire had not abandoned local colours, which were different from the party national colours.
Louth constituency had three key areas: Louth, Cleethorpes, and Immingham. During his time as a Member of Parliament, Archer was a regular at the Immingham Conservative Club in the most working-class part of the constituency. Membership and activity within the local Conservative Party increased with Archer as MP, due to his energy and campaigning skills. His personality and professionalism (he always drank orange juice) won him friends in the town and the local party.
In Parliament, Archer was on the left of the Conservative Party, rebelling against some of his party's policies. He urged free TV licences for the elderly and was against museum charges. Archer voted against restoring capital punishment, saying it was barbaric and obscene. In 1971 he employed David Mellor, then needing money for his bar finals, to deal with his correspondence. He tipped Mellor to reach the cabinet. In an interview Archer said "I hope we don't return to extremes. I'm what you might call centre-right but I've always disliked the right wing as much as I've disliked the left wing." [cite news | title=Lord Archer answers your questions | date=1999-02-01 | publisher=BBC News | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/269876.stm | accessdate = 2007-06-14 ] In 1974, he was a casualty of a fraudulent investment scheme involving Aquablast, a Canadian company, a debacle which lost Archer his first fortune.
Fearing imminent bankruptcy, he stood down as an MP at the October 1974 general election. By this time the Archers were living in a large five-bedroom house in The Boltons, an exclusive street in South Kensington. As a result of the Aquablast affair, they were forced to sell the house and move into more modest accommodation for a while.
Archer remained president of Immingham Conservative Party until he withdrew from the 2000 election for Mayor of London in 1999. Archer is considered a local celebrity by people of Immingham who were around when he was their Member of Parliament (although Archer has no family or business connection with the area). His rare visits to northern Lincolnshire attract considerable local public interest.
Politics and writing
His first book, "Not a Penny More, Not a Penny Less" was picked up by the literary agent Deborah Owen and published first in the US, then eventually in Britain in the Autumn of 1976. The book was an instant success, and Archer avoided bankruptcy, never being legally declared bankrupt. A BBC Television adaptation of the book was broadcast in 1990, and a radio adaptation was aired on Radio 4 in the early 1980s. While he was a witness in the Aquablast case in Toronto in 1977, Archer was accused of taking three suits from a department store, an accusation he denied for many years. However, in the late 1990s, Archer finally acknowledged that he had indeed taken the suits, although he claimed that at the time he hadn't realised he had left the shop.
No charges were brought.
"Kane and Abel" proved to be his best-selling work, reaching number one on the "New York Times" bestsellers list. It was made into a television mini-series by CBS in 1985, starring Peter Strauss and Sam Neill. The following year Granada TV screened a ten-part adaptation of another Archer bestseller, "First Among Equals", which told the story of four men and their quest to become Prime Minister. Archer claims to spend considerable time writing and re-writing each book. He goes abroad to write the first draft, working in blocks of two-hours at a time, then writes anything up to seventeen further drafts. It has been suggested that his books require extensive editing by others to make them readable. [Paul Kelso [http://www.guardian.co.uk/archer/article/0,,524675,00.html "Mendacious, ambitious, generous and naive",] "The Guardian", 20 July 2001. Retrieved on 9 May 2007.] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20010720/ai_n14402294/pg_3 "The Fall of Jeffrey Archer: The Man and the Myths: His was a life...", "The Independent" by Chris Blackhurst. 20 July 2007 [page 2] . Retrieved on 9 May 2007.]
In 1979 Archer purchased the Old Vicarage, Grantchester, a house associated with the poet Rupert Brooke. He also began to hold shepherd's pie and Krug parties for prominent people at his London apartment, which overlooked the Houses of Parliament.
Archer's political career revived once he became known for his novels and as a popular speaker among the Conservative grassroots. He was made deputy chairman of the Conservative Party by Margaret Thatcher in September 1985. Norman Tebbit, party chairman, had misgivings over the appointment, as did other prominent members of the party, including William Whitelaw and Ted Heath. During his tenure as deputy chairman, Archer was responsible for a number of embarrassing gaffs, including his claim, made during a live radio interview, that many young, unemployed people were simply unwilling to find work. At the time of Archer's comment, unemployment in the UK stood at a record 3.4 million. Archer was later forced to apologize for the remark, suggesting that his words had been "taken out of context". In summer 1986 Archer suggested John Major, by then a friend and neighbour of the Archers, would be a future Prime Minister.Fact|date=February 2007
Another scandal arose leading to his resignation in October 1986, when "The News of the World" led on the story "Tory boss Archer pays vice-girl". The article claimed Archer had paid Monica Coghlan, a prostitute, £2000 through an intermediary at Victoria Station to go abroad. Unlike the "Daily Star", the newspaper did not allege that Archer had slept with Coghlan.
Archer sued the "Daily Star".
In 1992, after having been previously rejected,
[cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Archer fraud allegations: the simple truth | date= | publisher= | url =http://www.guardian.co.uk/archer/article/0,,537932,00.html | work =The Guardian | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-18 | language = ] Archer was made a life peer as Baron Archer of Weston-super-Mare, of Mark in the County of Somerset by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister John Major.]
In a speech at the 1993 Conservative conference, Archer urged the Home Secretary Michael Howard, to "Stand and deliver" saying: "Michael, I am sick and tired of being told by old people that they are frightened to open the door, they're frightened to go out at night, frightened to use the parks and byways where their parents and grandparents walked with freedom ... We say to you: stand and deliver!". He then attacked violent films and urged tougher prison conditions to prevent criminals from re-offending. He criticised the role of do-gooders and finished off the speech by denouncing the opposition party's Law and Order policies. [The Times newspaper - Thursday 7 October 1993] . On "Question Time" in February 1994, Archer stated that 18 should be the age of consent for homosexuality, as opposed to 21, which it was at the time, or 16, which it was to be made in 1999. Archer has also consistently been an opponent of a return to Capital punishment.
"Daily Star" libel case
In July 1987, the libel case over the allegation that Archer had had sex with Monica Coghlan came to court. The payment to Coghlan was explained as the action of a philanthropist rather than that of a guilty man. He won the case and was awarded £500,000 damages. Archer claimed he would donate the money to charity, although it has not been verified that he did so. This case would ultimately result in Archer's final exit from front-line politics some years later.
There was astonishment at the description the judge (Mr Justice Caulfield) gave of Mrs Archer [cite news
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1388341.stm
date = 2001-06-14
title = Archer marriage under spotlight
accessdate = 2007-12-01
publisher = BBC] in his jury instructions: "Remember Mary Archer in the witness-box. Your vision of her probably will never disappear. Has she elegance? Has she fragrance? Would she have, without the strain of this trial, radiance? How would she appeal? Has she had a happy married life? Has she been able to enjoy, rather than endure, her husband Jeffrey?" The judge then went on to say of Jeffrey Archer, "Is he in need of cold, unloving, rubber-insulated sex in a seedy hotel round about quarter to one on a Tuesday morning after an evening at the Caprice?" By this time, according to the journalist Adam Raphael, Jeffrey and Mary Archer were, in fact, living largely separate lives.
The editor of the "Daily Star", Lloyd Turner, was sacked six weeks after the trial by the paper's owner Lord Stevens of Ludgate.
[cite news | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1447018.stm | title=Star demands £2.2m from Archer | publisher=BBC News | date=19 July 2001] He died of a heart attack in September 1996. Coghlan died in 2001 after being struck by a stolen car driven by a drunken drug addict fleeing an armed robbery. [cite news | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1425556.stm | title=Coghlan killer gets life | publisher=BBC News | date=6 July 2001] ]
In January 1994, Mary Archer, then a director of Anglia Television, attended a directors' meeting at which an impending takeover of Anglia Television by MAI, which owned Meridian Broadcasting, was discussed.
[cite news | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/mayor/Story/0,,194773,00.html | title=Archer's share deal under scrutiny again | publisher=The Guardian | date=30 October 1999] The following day, Jeffrey Archer bought 50,000 shares in Anglia Television, acting on behalf of a friend, Broosk Saib.] [cite news | url=http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4153/is_19991101/ai_n11911356 | title=Archer in fury as DTI questions TV shares deal again | publisher=Evening Standard | date=1 November 1999] Shortly after this, it was announced publicly that Anglia Television would be taken over by MAI. As a result the shares jumped in value, whereupon Archer sold them on behalf of his friend for a profit of £77,219.] The arrangements he made with the stockbrokers, which he had never used beforeFact|date=February 2007, meant he did not have to pay at the time of buying the shares.
An inquiry was launched by the Stock Exchange into possible insider trading. The Department of Trade and Industry, headed by Michael Heseltine, announced that Archer would not be prosecuted.
Archer later claimed that he had been "exonerated", but the DTI inquiry had merely stated that there was insufficient evidence to bring a prosecution.
Missing Kurdish aid
In July 2001, Scotland Yard began investigating allegations that millions of pounds had disappeared from "Simple Truth", a fundraising campaign run by Archer. He set up a charity with the Red Cross. He employed two Kurdish aides, Broosk Saib and Nadhim Zahawi, whom he nicknamed "Lemon Kurd and Bean Kurd."
In May 1991, Archer organised a charity pop concert in aid of the Kurds of Iraq, starring Rod Stewart, Paul Simon, Sting and Gloria Estefan, who all performed for free. On 19 June 1991, Archer held up a cheque for £57,042,000, around £3 million came from the Simple Truth concert and appeal, £10m from the UK government, and the remaining £43 million from overseas governments' aid projects, with significant amounts pledged before the concert. The campaign led John Major to recommend Archer for his peerage.
In 1992 the Kurdish Disaster Fund wrote to Archer, complaining: "You must be concerned that the Kurdish refugees have seen hardly any of the huge sums raised in the west in their name," Kurdish groups claimed little more than £250,000 had been received by groups in Iraq. Former Conservative Party vice chairman Lady Nicholson said "practically nothing" of the £57 million Archer said he collected had reached the Kurdish people.
[cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Archer faces 'missing aid' probe | date= | publisher= | url =http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/1451998.stm | work =BBC | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-18 | language = ] Archer then went to Iraq on a fact-finding mission, where his chant of "Long Live Kurdistan" was unfortunately mis-translated as "Bastard, Devilish Kurdistan."]
A British Red Cross-commissioned KPMG audit of the cash showed no donations were handled by Archer and any misappropriation was "unlikely". But KPMG could find no evidence to support Archer's claims to have raised £31.5 million from overseas governments. The police said they would launch a "preliminary assessment of the facts" from the audit but were not investigating the "Simple Truth" fund.
[cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article145624.ece | date= | publisher= | url =http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article145624.ece | work =Independent | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-18 | language = ] ]
Perjury and downfall
Archer had been selected by the Conservative Party as candidate for the London mayoral election of 2000. He was forced to withdraw when it was revealed that he was facing a charge of perjury.
In November 1999 Ted Francis, a friend (who claimed Archer owed him money) and Archer's former personal assistant Angela Peppiatt claimed he had fabricated an alibi in the 1987 trial. They were concerned that Archer was standing as Mayor of London and doubted that he was suitable. Peppiatt had kept a diary of Archer's movements, which contradicted evidence given during the 1987 trial. This formed the basis of the case against Archer.
The "News of the World" printed the allegations on 21 November 1999 and Archer withdrew his candidacy the following day. Conservative leader William Hague said "This is the end of politics for Jeffrey Archer. I will not tolerate such behaviour in my party". [cite news | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/archer/article/0,,195732,00.html | title=Disgraced Archer jettisoned by Tories | publisher=The Guardian Unlimited | date= 23 November 1999] On 8 October he had described Archer as a candidate of "probity and integrity. I'm going to back him all the way" at the Conservative party conference. Hague was never keen on Archer for the job, Fact|date=February 2007 but as Archer had won in the ballot of London Conservative members he was forced to back him.
On 4 February 2000 Archer was expelled from the Conservative Party for five years. On 26 September 2000 he was charged with perjury and perverting the course of justice during the 1987 libel trial.
A few months before the beginning of the perjury trial, Archer began in the star role in a courtroom play (which he also wrote) called "The Accused". The play was staged at London's Theatre Royal Haymarket and concerned the court trial of an alleged murderer from beginning to end. The play used the technique (first used by Ayn Rand in her play "The Night of January 16") of assigning the role of jury in the trial to the audience, theatre-goers voting on whether Archer's character was guilty at the end of each performance. Archer would attend his real trial during the day and be judged in his fictional trial in the evening.
The real trial began on 30 May 2001. On 19 July 2001 Archer was found guilty of perjury and perverting the course of justice (meaning he can legally be called a liar,Fact|date=August 2008 as has been done on the BBC's "Have I Got News For You" programme several times) at the 1987 trial. He was sentenced to four years' imprisonment by Mr Justice Potts. Archer never spoke during the trial, though his wife Mary again gave evidence as she had done during the 1987 trial. Ted Francis was found not guilty of perverting the course of justice.
Archer's mother died on 11 July 2001 aged 87, and he was released for the day on 21 July to attend the funeral.
Archer was sent to Belmarsh Prison, but was moved to the category "C" Wayland Prison in Norfolk on 9 August 2001, and to HMP North Sea Camp, an open prison in October 2001. From there he was let out to work at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln, England, and was allowed occasional home visits. Reports in the media claimed he had been abusing this privilege by attending lunches with friends, including former Education Secretary Gillian Shephard and in September 2002 he was transferred to Lincoln Prison for a month. While in prison, he wrote the three-volume memoir "A Prison Diary". During his time in prison, he was visited by a number of high-profile friends, including the actor Donald Sinden and the performer Barry Humphries. The former Prime Minister John Major is also believed to have visited him on a number of occasions.
In October 2002 Archer repaid the "Daily Star" the £500,000 damages he had received in 1987, as well as legal costs of £1 million. That month, he was suspended from Marylebone Cricket Club for seven years.
On 21 July 2003 he was released on licence, after serving half of his sentence, from HMP Hollesley Bay, Suffolk.
Many of Archer's friends remained loyal. He and Lady Archer were guests at the memorial service for Norris McWhirter at Saint Martin-in-the-Fields on Thursday, 7 October 2004 where they sat in the same pew as former head of the Conservative Monday Club, Gregory Lauder-Frost, and in front of Lady Thatcher, who embraced Lady Archer.
On 26 February 2006 on Andrew Marr's "Sunday AM" programme, Archer said he had no interest in returning to front-line politics: he would pursue his writing instead. [cite news | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/4752758.stm | title=Archer 'may vote in Lords again' | date=26 February 2006 | publisher=BBC]
Equatorial Guinea coup d'état attempt
In 2004, the Equatorial Guinea government alleged that Archer was one of the financiers of the failed 2004 coup d'état attempt against them, citing bank details and telephone records as evidence.
[cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title= New Archer link to coup plot alleged | date= | publisher= | url = http://www.guardian.co.uk/equatorialguinea/story/0,,1326040,00.html | work =The Guardian | pages = | accessdate = 2007-08-22 | language = ] ]
Archer in fiction
Archer was satirically portrayed as a misunderstood secret agent, saviour of Britain and mankind and "overall thoroughly good chap", by actor Damian Lewis in the BBC drama "Jeffrey Archer: The Truth" (2002), [cite web
url = http://www.bbc.co.uk/drama/archer/
title = Jeffrey Archer: The Truth - BBC Drama
accessdate = 2007-12-01
publisher = BBC] which received strong reviews. Script writer Guy Jenkin explained that "my Jeffrey Archer is the man who has frequently saved Britain over the last 30 years. He's beloved of all women he comes across, all men, all dogs - he's a superhero".
In "There's No Place Like a Home", a comedy play by Paul Elliot, the residents of a retirement home for actors and actresses, trying to prevent its closure, kidnap Archer to use the ransom money to keep their home open.
Archer was a judge on the ITV1 show "".In 2006 he appeared on the BBC Two programme "The Verdict", which featured twelve celebrities sitting on the jury of a fictional court case.During the 1990s Archer was co-host of the BBC Two afternoon political programme "Behind the Headlines", where he appeared alongside Labour politicians Paul Boateng and later Tony Banks.Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Archer was a frequent guest on political programmes like "Question Time" and "Any Questions".During the 1980s he regularly appeared on "The Dame Edna Experience" on ITV.In the mid 1960s, fresh out of Oxford, Archer tried to become a commentator for BBC TV's "Grandstand", and even at one point applied for a reporter's job with BBC TV's "Panorama". On both occasions he was unsuccessful.
*cite book | authorlink=Adam Raphael | first=Adam | last=Raphael | title=My Learned Friends: an Insider's View of the Jeffrey Archer Case and Other Notorious Actions | id=ISBN 9781852270940 | year=1989
*cite book | authorlink=Michael Crick | first=Michael | last=Crick | title=Jeffrey Archer: Stranger than Fiction | id=ISBN 0-241-13360-2
* [http://www.accessinterviews.com/page/meets-jeffrey-archer Filmed interview from March 2008] at Access Interviews
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/269876.stm Interview about becoming Mayor of London] at BBC News
* [http://www.jeffreyarcher.co.uk Jeffrey Archer's official Web site]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/uk/2001/archer_trial/default.stm News In Depth: The Archer trial] at BBC News
* "The Times" - "Activists demand tough line on crime - Conservative Party conference" - 7 October 1993.
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/archer/0,2759,180881,00.html Coverage of the Archer trial] at "The Guardian"
* [http://www.curtainup.com/accused.html Review of Jeffrey Archer's 2000 courtroom play, "The Accused"] at Curtain Up
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1420132.stm Anglia shares] at BBC News
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/archer/article/0,2763,522725,00.html Archer in DTI shares inquiry] at "The Guardian"
* [http://www.wongacoup.com/ The webpage for the book 'The Wonga Coup']
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/archer/0,,180881,00.html Jeffrey Archer: Special Report at The Guardian]
NAME= Archer, Jeffrey
SHORT DESCRIPTION= English Politician and Author
DATE OF BIRTH= 15 April 1940
PLACE OF BIRTH= London, England
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
Источник: Jeffrey Archer