name = Thomas Pynchon
imagesize = 155px
caption = Thomas Pynchon in 1957, one of the few photographs of him ever to be published
birthdate = Birth date and age|1937|5|8|mf=y
birthplace = Glen Cove, New York, USA
occupation = Short story writer and novelist
nationality = United States
genre = Black comedy
magnum opus = Gravity's Rainbow
movement = Postmodernism
Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Jr. (born May 8, 1937) is an American writer based in New York City, noted for his dense and complex works of fiction. Hailing from Long Island, Pynchon spent two years in the United States Navy and earned an English degree from Cornell University. After publishing several short stories in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he began composing the novels for which he is best known: "V." (1963), "The Crying of Lot 49" (1966), "Gravity's Rainbow" (1973), "Vineland" (1990), "Mason & Dixon" (1997), and "Against the Day" (2006).
Pynchon (pronEng|ˈpɪntʃɒn, with IPA|/ˈpɪntʃən/ a common mispronunciation) is regarded by many readers and critics as one of the finest contemporary authors. He is a MacArthur Fellow and a recipient of the National Book Award, and is regularly cited as a contender for the Nobel Prize in Literature. Both his fiction and non-fiction writings encompass a vast array of subject matter, styles and themes, including (but not limited to) the fields of history, science and mathematics. Pynchon is also known for his avoidance of personal publicity: very few photographs of him have ever been published, and rumours about his location and identity have been circulated since the 1960s.
Thomas Pynchon was born in 1937 in Glen Cove, Long Island, New York, one of three children of Thomas Ruggles Pynchon, Sr. (1907 – 1995) and Katherine Frances Bennett (1909 – 1996). His earliest American ancestor, William Pynchon, emigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony with the Winthrop Fleet in 1630, and thereafter a long line of Pynchon descendants found wealth and repute on American soil. Pynchon's family background and aspects of his ancestry have provided source material for his fictions, particularly in the Slothrop family histories related in the short story "The Secret Integration" (1964) and "Gravity's Rainbow" (1973).
Childhood and education
Pynchon attended Oyster Bay High School, where he was awarded 'student of the year' and contributed short fictional pieces to his school newspaper (Pynchon 1952-3). These juvenilia incorporated some of the literary motifs and recurring subject matter he would use throughout his career: oddball names, sophomoric humour, illicit drug use and paranoia.
After graduating from high school in 1953 at the age of 16, Pynchon studied engineering physics at Cornell University, but left at the end of his second year to serve in the U.S. Navy. In 1957, he returned to Cornell to pursue a degree in English. His first published story, "The Small Rain", appeared in the "Cornell Writer" in May 1959, and narrates an actual experience of a friend who had served in the army; subsequently, however, episodes and characters throughout Pynchon's fiction draw freely upon his own experiences in the navy.
While at Cornell, Pynchon started his life-long friendship with Richard Fariña; Pynchon would go on to dedicate "Gravity's Rainbow" to Fariña, as well as serve as his best man and as his pallbearer. Together the two briefly led what Pynchon has called a 'micro-cult' around Oakley Hall's 1958 novel "Warlock". (Pynchon later reminisced about his college days in the introduction he wrote in 1983 for Fariña's novel "Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me," first published in 1966.) Reportedly he attended lectures given by Vladimir Nabokov, who then taught literature at Cornell. While Nabokov later said that he had no memory of Pynchon (although Nabokov's wife, Véra, who graded her husband's class papers, commented that she remembered his distinctive handwriting - comprised of a mixture of printed and cursive letters), other teachers at Cornell, such as the novelist James McConkey, recall him as being a gifted and exceptional student. In 1958, Pynchon and Cornell classmate Kirkpatrick Sale wrote part or all of a science-fiction musical, "Minstral Island", which portrayed a dystopian future in which IBM rules the world (Gibbs 1994). Pynchon received his BA in June 1959.
After leaving Cornell, Pynchon began to work on his first novel. From February 1960 to September 1962, he was employed as a technical writer at Boeing in Seattle, where he compiled safety articles for the "Bomarc Service News" (see Wisnicki 2000-1), a support newsletter for the BOMARC surface-to-air missile deployed by the U.S. Air Force. Pynchon's experiences at Boeing inspired his depictions of the 'Yoyodyne' corporation in "V." and "The Crying of Lot 49," and both his background in physics and the technical journalism he undertook at Boeing provided much raw material for "Gravity's Rainbow". When published in 1963, "V." won a William Faulkner Foundation Award for the best first novel of the year.
After resigning from Boeing, Pynchon spent some time in New York and Mexico before moving to California, where he was reportedly based for much of the 1960s and early 1970s, most notably in an apartment in Manhattan Beach (see Frost 2003), as he was composing his most highly regarded work, "Gravity's Rainbow". Pynchon during this time flirted with the lifestyle and some of the habits of the hippie counterculture (see, for example, Gordon 1994); however, his retrospective assessment of the motives, values and achievements of the student and youth milieux of the period, in his 1984 "Introduction" to the Slow Learner collection of early stories and the novel "Vineland" (1990) in particular, is equivocal at best.
In 1964, an application to study Mathematics as a graduate student at the University of California, Berkeley, was turned down (Royster 2005). In 1966, Pynchon wrote a first-hand report on the aftermath and legacy of the Watts riots in Los Angeles. Entitled "A Journey Into the Mind of Watts," the article was published in the "New York Times Magazine" (Pynchon 1966).
From the mid-1960s Pynchon has also regularly provided blurbs and introductions for a wide range of novels and non-fiction works. One of the first of these pieces was a brief review of Hall's "Warlock" which appeared, along with comments by seven other writers on "neglected books", as part of a feature entitled "A Gift of Books" in the December 1965 issue of "Holiday."
"The Crying of Lot 49"
In an April 1964 letter to his agent, Candida Donadio, Pynchon wrote that he was facing a creative crisis, with four novels in progress, announcing: "If they come out on paper anything like they are inside my head then it will be the literary event of the millennium." (see Gussow 1998) In December 1965, Pynchon politely turned down an invitation from Stanley Edgar Hyman to teach literature at Bennington College, writing that he had resolved, two or three years earlier, to write three novels at once. Pynchon described the decision as "a moment of temporary insanity", but noted that he was "too stubborn to let any of them go, let alone all of them." (see McLemee 2006)
Pynchon's second novel, "The Crying of Lot 49," was published a few months later in 1966. Whether it was one of the three or four novels Pynchon had in progress is not known, but in a 1965 letter to Donadio, Pynchon had written that he was in the middle of writing a "potboiler". When the book grew to 155 pages, he called it, "a short story, but with gland trouble", and hoped that Donadio could "unload it on some poor sucker." (Gussow 1998)
"The Crying of Lot 49" won the Richard and Hilda Rosenthal Foundation Award shortly after publication. Although more concise and linear in its structure than Pynchon's other novels, its labyrinthine plot features an ancient, underground mail service known as 'The Tristero' or 'Trystero', a parody of a Jacobean revenge drama called "The Courier's Tragedy", and a corporate conspiracy involving the bones of World War II American GIs being used as charcoal cigarette filters. It proposes a series of seemingly incredible interconnections between these events and other similarly bizarre revelations that confront the novel's protagonist, Oedipa Maas. Like "V.," the novel contains a wealth of references to science and technology and to obscure historical events, with both books dwelling on the detritus of American society and culture. "The Crying of Lot 49" also continues Pynchon's strategy of composing parodic song lyrics and punning names, and referencing aspects of popular culture within his prose narratives. In particular, it incorporates a very direct allusion to the protagonist of Nabokov's "Lolita" within the lyric of a love lament sung by a member of 'The Paranoids', a teenage band who deliberately sing their songs with British accents.
In 1968, Pynchon was one of 447 signatories to the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest". Full-page advertisements in "The New York Post" and "The New York Review of Books" listed the names of those who had pledged not to pay "the proposed 10% income tax surcharge or any war-designated tax increase", and stated their belief "that American involvement in Vietnam is morally wrong". ("New York Review of Books" 1968:9)
Pynchon's most celebrated novel is his third, "Gravity's Rainbow", published in 1973. An intricate and allusive fiction that combines and elaborates on many of the themes of his earlier work, including preterition, paranoia, racism, colonialism, conspiracy, synchronicity, and entropy, the novel has spawned a wealth of commentary and critical material, including two reader's guides (Fowler 1980; Weisenburger 1988), books and scholarly articles, online concordances and discussions, and art works, and is regarded as one of the archetypal texts of American literary postmodernism. The major portion of "Gravity's Rainbow" takes place in London and Europe in the final months of the Second World War and the weeks immediately following VE Day, and is narrated for the most part from within the historical moment in which it is set. In this way, Pynchon's text enacts a type of dramatic irony whereby neither the characters nor the various narrative voices are aware of specific historical circumstances, such as the Holocaust, which are, however, very much to the forefront of the reader's understanding of this time in history. Such an approach generates dynamic tension and moments of acute self-consciousness, as both reader and author seem drawn ever deeper into the "plot", in various senses of that term.
Encyclopedic in scope and often playfully self-conscious in style, the novel displays impressive erudition in its treatment of an array of material drawn from the fields of psychology, chemistry, mathematics, history, religion, music, literature and film. Perhaps appropriately for a book so suffused with engineering knowledge, Pynchon wrote the first draft of "Gravity's Rainbow" in "neat, tiny script on engineer's quadrille paper". (Weisenburger 1988) Pynchon worked on the novel throughout the 1960s and early 1970s while he was living in California and Mexico City.
"Gravity's Rainbow" was a joint winner of the 1974 National Book Award for Fiction, along with Isaac Bashevis Singer's "A Crown of Feathers and Other Stories". In the same year, the fiction jury unanimously recommended "Gravity's Rainbow" for the Pulitzer Prize; however, the Pulitzer board vetoed the jury's recommendation, describing the novel as "unreadable", "turgid", "overwritten", and in parts "obscene", and no prize was awarded. (Kihss 1974). In 1975, Pynchon declined the William Dean Howells Medal of the American Academy of Arts and Letters
A collection of Pynchon's early short stories, "Slow Learner", was published in 1984, with a lengthy autobiographical introduction. In October of the same year, an article entitled "Is It O.K. to Be a Luddite?" was published in the "New York Times Book Review". In April 1988, Pynchon contributed an extensive review of Gabriel García Márquez's novel, "Love in the Time of Cholera", to the "New York Times", under the title "The Heart's Eternal Vow". Another article, entitled "Nearer, My Couch, to Thee", was published in June 1993 in the "New York Times Book Review", as one in a series of articles in which various writers reflected on each of the Seven Deadly Sins. Pynchon's subject was "Sloth".
Pynchon's fourth novel, "Vineland", was published in 1990, but disappointed a majority of fans and critics. It did, however, receive some positive reviews, notably from Salman Rushdie. (1990) The novel is set in California in the 1980s and 1960s, and describes the relationship between an FBI COINTELPRO agent and a female radical filmmaker. Its strong socio-political undercurrents detail the constant battle between authoritarianism and communalism, and the nexus between resistance and complicity, but with a typically Pynchonian sense of humor.
In 1988, he received a MacArthur Fellowship and, since the early 1990s at least, many observers have mentioned Pynchon as a Nobel Prize contender. (see, for example, Grimes 1993; CNN Book News 1999; Ervin 2000) Renowned American literary critic Harold Bloom named him as one of the four major American novelists of his time, along with Don DeLillo, Philip Roth, and Cormac McCarthy.
"Mason & Dixon"
Pynchon's fifth novel, "Mason & Dixon", was published in 1997, though it had been a work in progress since at least January 1975. (Ulin 1997; see also Gussow 1998) The meticulously-researched novel is a sprawling postmodernist saga recounting the lives and careers of the English astronomer, Charles Mason, and his partner, the surveyor Jeremiah Dixon, the surveyors of the Mason-Dixon line, during the birth of the American Republic. While it received some negative reviews, the great majority of commentators acknowledged it as a welcome return to form, and some have hailed it as Pynchon's greatest work.
"Against the Day"
A variety of rumors pertaining to the subject matter of Pynchon's most recent novel, "Against the Day", circulated for a number of years. Most specific of these were comments made by the former German minister of culture, Michael Naumann, who stated that he assisted Pynchon in his research about "a Russian mathematician [who] studied for David Hilbert in Göttingen", and that the new novel would trace the life and loves of Sofia Kovalevskaya.
In July 2006, a new untitled novel by Pynchon was announced along with a synopsis written by Pynchon himself, which appeared on Amazon.com, it stated that the novel's action takes place between the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and the time immediately following World War I. "With a worldwide disaster looming just a few years ahead", Pynchon wrote in his book description, "it is a time of unrestrained corporate greed, false religiosity, moronic fecklessness, and evil intent in high places. No reference to the present day is intended or should be inferred." He promised cameos by Nikola Tesla, Bela Lugosi and Groucho Marx, as well as "stupid songs" and "strange sexual practices". Subsequently, the title of the new book was reported to be "Against the Day" and a Penguin spokesperson confirmed that the synopsis was Pynchon's. (Pynchon 2006a; Patterson 2006ab; Italie 2006)
"Against the Day" was released on November 21, 2006 and is 1,085 pages long in the first edition hardcover. The book was given almost no promotion by Penguin and professional book reviewers were given little time in advance to review the book, presumably in accord with Pynchon's wishes. An edited version of Pynchon's synopsis was used as the jacket flap copy and Kovalevskaya does appear, although as only one of over a hundred characters.
Composed predominantly of a series of interwoven pastiches of popular fiction genres from the era in which it is set, the novel inspired a mixed reaction from critics and reviewers, though many acknowledge that it is by turns brilliant and exhausting. (Complete Review 2006) Some made the point that this was ostensibly the culmination of Pynchon's career and a summation of his personal philosophy, while others noted that it was a "loose baggy monster" which had been pieced together from several long-time Pynchonian works-in-progress and offcuts from other of his novels. An [http://against-the-day.pynchonwiki.com/wiki/index.php?title=Main_Page "Against the Day" wiki] was launched on the same day the novel was published to help readers keep track of the numerous characters, events and themes.
Information regarding a new Pynchon novel scheduled for publication in August 2009 was leaked in October 2008 (Kellogg 2008) and subsequently confirmed by a spokesperson for Penguin Press. The new book is reportedly "around 400 pages, and is a kind of noir detective story set in the 1960s, with lots of psychedelia as background."
Along with its emphasis on loftier themes such as racism, imperialism and religion, and its cognizance and appropriation of many elements of traditional high culture and literary form, Pynchon's work also demonstrates a strong affinity with the practitioners and artifacts of low culture, including comic books and cartoons, pulp fiction, popular films, television programs, cookery, urban myths, conspiracy theories, and folk art. This blurring of the conventional boundary between "High" and "low" culture, sometimes interpreted as a "deconstruction", is seen as one of the defining characteristics of postmodernism.
In particular, Pynchon has revealed himself in his fiction and non-fiction as an aficionado of popular music. Song lyrics and mock musical numbers appear in each of his novels, and, in his autobiographical introduction to the "Slow Learner" collection of early stories, he reveals a fondness for both jazz and rock and roll. The character McClintic Sphere in "V." is a fictional composite of jazz musicians such as Ornette Coleman, Charlie Parker and Thelonious Monk. In "The Crying of Lot 49", the lead singer of "The Paranoids" sports "a Beatle haircut" and sings with an English accent. In the closing pages of "Gravity's Rainbow", there is an apocryphal report that Tyrone Slothrop, the novel's protagonist, played kazoo and harmonica as a guest musician on a record released by The Fool in the 1960s (having magically recovered the latter instrument, his "harp", in a German stream in 1945, after losing it down the toilet in 1939 at the Roseland Ballroom in Roxbury, Boston, to the strains of the jazz standard 'Cherokee', upon which tune Charlie Parker was simultaneously inventing bebop in New York, as Pynchon describes). In "Vineland", both Zoyd Wheeler and Isaiah Two Four are also musicians: Zoyd played keyboards in a '60s surf band called "The Corvairs", while Isaiah played in a punk band called "Billy Barf and the Vomitones". In "Mason & Dixon", one of the characters plays on the "Clavier" the varsity drinking song which will later become "The Star-Spangled Banner"; whilst in another episode a character remarks tangentially "Sometimes, it's hard to be a woman".
In his "Slow Learner" introduction, Pynchon acknowledges a debt to the anarchic bandleader Spike Jones, and in 1994, he penned a 3000-word set of liner notes for the album "Spiked!", a collection of Jones's recordings released on the short-lived BMG Catalyst label. Pynchon also wrote the liner notes for "Nobody's Cool", the second album of indie rock band Lotion, in which he states that "rock and roll remains one of the last honorable callings, and a working band is a miracle of everyday life. Which is basically what these guys do." He is also known to be a fan of Roky Erickson.
Investigations and digressions into the realms of human sexuality, psychology, sociology, mathematics, science, and technology recur throughout Pynchon's works. One of his earliest short stories, "Low-lands" (1960), features a meditation on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle as a metaphor for telling stories about one's own experiences. His next published work, "Entropy" (1960), introduced the concept which was to become synonymous with Pynchon's name (though Pynchon later admitted the "shallowness of [his] understanding" of the subject, and noted that choosing an abstract concept first and trying to construct a narrative around it was "a lousy way to go about writing a story"). Another early story, "Under the Rose" (1961), includes amongst its cast of characters a cyborg set anachronistically in Victorian-era Egypt (a type of writing now called steampunk). This story, significantly reworked by Pynchon, appears as Chapter 3 of "V." "The Secret Integration" (1964), Pynchon's last published short story, is a sensitively-handled coming-of-age tale in which a group of young boys face the consequences of the American policy of racial integration. At one point in the story, the boys attempt to understand the new policy by way of the mathematical operation, the only sense of the word with which they are familiar.
"The Crying of Lot 49" also alludes to entropy and communication theory, and contains scenes and descriptions which parody or appropriate calculus, Zeno's paradoxes, and the thought experiment known as Maxwell's demon. At the same time, the novel also investigates homosexuality, celibacy and both medically-sanctioned and illicit psychedelic drug use. "Gravity's Rainbow" describes many varieties of sexual fetishism (including sado-masochism, coprophilia and a borderline case of tentacle rape), and features numerous episodes of drug use, most notably marijuana but also cocaine, naturally occurring hallucinogens, and the mushroom "Amanita muscaria." "Gravity's Rainbow" also derives much from Pynchon's background in mathematics: at one point, the geometry of garter belts is compared with that of cathedral spires, both described as mathematical singularities. "Mason & Dixon" explores the scientific, theological, and socio-cultural foundations of the Age of Reason whilst also depicting the relationships between actual historical figures and fictional characters in intricate detail and, like "Gravity's Rainbow", is an archetypal example of the genre of historiographic metafiction.
An eclectic catalogue of Pynchonian precursors has been proposed by readers and critics. Beside overt references in the novels to writers as disparate as
Giorgio de Chirico,
Rainer Maria Rilke,
Jorge Luis Borges,
Ralph Waldo Emerson,
Patrick O'Brian, and
Umberto Eco and to an eclectic mix of iconic religious and philosophical sources, credible comparisons with works by
Edgar Allan Poe,
Patrick White, and
Toni Morrison have been made. Some commentators have detected similarities with those writers in the Modernist tradition who wrote extremely long novels dealing with large metaphysical or political issues. Examples of such works might include "Ulysses" by James Joyce,"A Passage to India" by E.M. Forster, "The Castle" by Franz Kafka,"The Apes of God" by Wyndham Lewis,"The Man Without Qualities" by Robert Musil, and"U.S.A." by John Dos Passos. In his 'Introduction' to "Slow Learner", Pynchon explicitly acknowledges his debt to Beat Generation writers, and expresses his admiration for Jack Kerouac's "On the Road" in particular; he also reveals his familiarity with literary works by T. S. Eliot, Ernest Hemingway, Henry Miller, Saul Bellow, Herbert Gold, Philip Roth and Norman Mailer, and non-fiction works by Helen Waddell, Norbert Wiener and Isaac Asimov. Other contemporary American authors whose fiction is often categorized alongside Pynchon's include
Don DeLillo, and
The wildly eccentric characters, frenzied action, frequent digressions, and imposing lengths of Pynchon's novels have led critic James Wood to classify Pynchon's work as hysterical realism. Other writers whose work has been labeled as hysterical realism include Salman Rushdie, Steve Erickson, Neal Stephenson, and Zadie Smith. Younger contemporary writers who have been touted as heirs apparent to Pynchon include David Foster Wallace, William Vollmann, Richard Powers, Steve Erickson, David Mitchell, Neal Stephenson, Dave Eggers, and Tommaso Pincio whose pseudonym is an Italian rendering of Pynchon's name.
Pynchon's work has been cited as an influence and inspiration by many writers and artists, including
T. Coraghessan Boyle,
David Cronenberg, and
Adam Rapp. Thanks to his influence on Gibson and Stephenson in particular, Pynchon became one of the progenitors of cyberpunk fiction. Though the term "cyberpunk" did not become prevalent until the early 1980s, many readers retroactively include "Gravity's Rainbow" in the genre, along with other works — "e.g.," Samuel R. Delany's "Dhalgren" and many works of Philip K. Dick — which seem, after the fact, to anticipate cyberpunk styles and themes. The encyclopedic nature of Pynchon's novels also led to some attempts to link his work with the short-lived hypertext fiction movement of the 1990s (Page 2002; Krämer 2005).
Relatively little is known about Thomas Pynchon's private life; he has carefully avoided contact with journalists for more than forty years. Only a few photos of him are known to exist, nearly all from his high school and college days, and his whereabouts have often remained undisclosed.
A review of "V." in the "New York Times Book Review" described Pynchon as "a recluse" living in Mexico, thereby introducing the media label which has pursued Pynchon throughout his career (Plimpton 1963: 5). Nonetheless, Pynchon's absence from the public spotlight is one of the notable features of his life, and it has generated many rumors and apocryphal anecdotes.
1970s and 1980s
After the publication and success of "Gravity's Rainbow", interest mounted in finding out more about the identity of the author. At the 1974 National Book Award ceremony, the president of Viking Press, Tom Guinzberg, arranged for double-talking comedian "Professor" Irwin Corey to accept the prize on Pynchon's behalf (Royster 2005). Many of the assembled guests had no idea who Corey was, and, having never seen the author, they assumed that it was Pynchon himself on the stage delivering Corey's trademark torrent of rambling, pseudo-scholarly verbiage (Corey 1974). Towards the end of Corey's address a streaker ran through the hall, adding further to the confusion.
An article published in the "Soho Weekly News" claimed that Pynchon was in fact J. D. Salinger (Batchelor 1976). Pynchon's written response to this theory (reported in Tanner 1982) was simple: "Not bad. Keep trying."
Thereafter, the first piece to provide substantial information about Pynchon's personal life was a biographical account written by a former Cornell University friend, Jules Siegel, and published in "Playboy" magazine. In his article, Siegel reveals that Pynchon had a complex about his teeth and underwent extensive and painful reconstructive surgery, was nicknamed "Tom" at Cornell and attended Mass diligently, acted as best man at Siegel's wedding, and that he later also had an affair with Siegel's wife. Siegel recalls Pynchon saying he did attend some of Vladimir Nabokov's lectures at Cornell but that he could hardly make out what Nabokov was saying because of his thick Russian accent. Siegel also records Pynchon's comment that " [e] very weirdo in the world is on my wavelength", an observation borne out by the crankiness and zealotry which has attached itself to his name and work in subsequent years. (Siegel 1977)
In the late 1980s, author Robert Clark Young prevailed upon his father, an employee of the California Department of Motor Vehicles, to look up Pynchon's driving record, using Pynchon's full name and known birth date. The results showed that Pynchon was living at the time in Aptos, California, and was driving a 1974 Datsun (Young 1992). The improperly-obtained cancelled license subsequently found its way into the hands of at least two academics publishing scholarly work on Pynchon.
Pynchon's avoidance of celebrity and public appearances caused journalists to continue to speculate about his identity and activities, and reinforced his reputation within the media as "reclusive". More astute readers and critics recognized that there were and are perhaps aesthetic (and ideological) motivations behind his choice to remain aloof from public life. For example, the protagonist in Janette Turner Hospital's short story, "For Mr. Voss or Occupant" (publ. 1991), explains to her daughter that she is writing:a study of authors who become reclusive. Patrick White, Emily Dickinson, J. D. Salinger, Thomas Pynchon. The way they create solitary characters and personae and then disappear into their fictions. (Hospital 1995: 361-2)More recently, book critic Arthur Salm has written that:the man simply chooses not to be a public figure, an attitude that resonates on a frequency so out of phase with that of the prevailing culture that if Pynchon and Paris Hilton were ever to meet — the circumstances, I admit, are beyond imagining — the resulting matter/antimatter explosion would vaporize everything from here to Tau Ceti IV. (Salm 2004)
Belying this reputation somewhat, Pynchon has published a number of articles and reviews in the mainstream American media, including words of support for Salman Rushdie and his then-wife, Marianne Wiggins, after the fatwa was pronounced against Rushdie by the Iranian leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (Pynchon 1989). In the following year, Rushdie's enthusiastic review of Pynchon's "Vineland" prompted Pynchon to send him another message hinting that if Rushdie were ever in New York, the two should arrange a meeting. Eventually, the two did meet, and Rushdie found himself surprised by how much Pynchon resembled the mental image Rushdie had formed beforehand (Hitchens 1997).
In the early 1990s, Pynchon married his literary agent, Melanie Jackson — a great-granddaughter of Theodore Roosevelt — and fathered a son, Jackson, in 1991. The disclosure of Pynchon's location in New York, after many years in which he was believed to be dividing his time between Mexico and northern California, led some journalists and photographers to try to track him down. Shortly before the publication of "Mason & Dixon" in 1997, a CNN camera crew filmed him in Manhattan. Angered by this invasion of his privacy, he rang CNN asking that he not be identified in the footage of the street scenes near his home. When asked about his reclusive nature, he remarked, "My belief is that 'recluse' is a code word generated by journalists ... meaning, 'doesn't like to talk to reporters'." CNN also quoted him as saying, "Let me be unambiguous. I prefer not to be photographed." (CNN 1997) The next year, a reporter for the "Sunday Times" managed to snap a photo of him as he was walking with his son (Bone 1998).
After several references to Pynchon's work and reputation were made on NBC's "The John Larroquette Show," Pynchon (through his agent) reportedly contacted the show's producers to offer suggestions and corrections. When a local Pynchon sighting became a major plot point in a 1994 episode of the show, Pynchon was sent the script for his approval; as well as providing the title of a fictitious work to be used in one episode ("Pandemonium of the Sun"), the novelist apparently vetoed a final scene that called for an extra playing him to be filmed from behind, walking away from shot (CNN 1997; Glenn 2003). Also during the 1990s, Pynchon apparently befriended members of the band Lotion and attended a number of their shows, culminating in the liner notes he contributed for the band's 1995 album "Nobody's Cool". The novelist then conducted an interview with the band ("Lunch With Lotion") for "Esquire" in June 1996 in the lead-up to the publication of "Mason & Dixon". More recently, Pynchon provided faxed answers to questions submitted by author David Hajdu and permitted excerpts from his personal correspondence to be quoted in Hajdu's 2001 book, "Positively 4th Street: The Lives and Times of Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Fariña and Richard Fariña" (Warner 2001).
Pynchon's attempt to maintain his personal privacy and have his work speak for itself has resulted in a number of outlandish rumors and hoaxes over the years. Indeed, claims that Pynchon was the Unabomber or a sympathizer with the Waco Branch Davidians after the 1993 siege were upstaged in the mid-1990s by the invention of an elaborate rumor insinuating that Pynchon and one "Wanda Tinasky" were the same person. A spate of letters authored under that name had appeared in the late 1980s in the "Anderson Valley Advertiser" in Anderson Valley, California. The style and content of those letters were said to resemble Pynchon's, and Pynchon's "Vineland", published in 1990, also takes place in northern California, so it was suggested that Pynchon may have been in the area at that time, conducting research. A collection of the Tinasky letters was eventually published as a paperback book in 1996; however, Pynchon himself denied having written the letters, and no direct attribution of the letters to Pynchon was ever made. "Literary detective" Donald Foster subsequently showed that the "Letters" were in fact written by an obscure Beat writer called Tom Hawkins, who had murdered his wife and then committed suicide in 1988. Foster's evidence was conclusive, including finding the typewriter on which the "Tinasky" letters had been written (Foster 2000).
In 1998, over 120 letters that Pynchon had written to his longtime agent, Candida Donadio, were donated by the family of private collector, Carter Burden, to the Pierpont Morgan Library in New York City. The letters ranged from 1963 to 1982, thus covering some of the author's most creative and prolific years. Although the Morgan Library originally intended to allow scholars to view the letters, at Pynchon’s request the Burden family and Morgan Library agreed to seal these letters until after Pynchon's death (see Gussow 1998).
After 9/11, a supposed "interview" with Pynchon appeared in an issue of "Playboy" Japan. Published under the heading "Most News is Propaganda. Bin Laden May Not Exist", it purported to be a talk with Pynchon on the events of 9/11 and Osama Bin Laden. Its authenticity has been questioned by experts and it has never been republished in the American media.
Responding ironically to the image which has been manufactured in the media over the years, during 2004, Pynchon made two cameo appearances on the animated television series "The Simpsons". The first occurs in the episode "Diatribe of a Mad Housewife", in which Marge Simpson becomes a novelist. He plays himself, with a paper bag over his head, and provides a blurb for the back cover of Marge's book, speaking in a broad Long Island accent: "Here's your quote: Thomas Pynchon loved this book, almost as much as he loves cameras!" He then starts yelling at passing cars: "Hey, over here, have your picture taken with a reclusive author! Today only, we'll throw in a free autograph! But, wait! There's more!" The second appearance occurs in "All's Fair in Oven War," which was the second episode of the sixteenth season. In this appearance, Pynchon's dialogue consists entirely of puns on his novel titles ("These wings are 'V'-licious! I'll put this recipe in 'The Gravity's Rainbow Cookbook', right next to 'The Frying of Latke 49'."). The cartoon representation of Pynchon reappears in a third, non-speaking cameo, as a guest at the fictional WordLoaf convention depicted in the 18th season (2006) episode, "Moe'N'a Lisa." The episode first aired on November 19, 2006, the Sunday before Pynchon's sixth novel, "Against the Day", was released, perhaps as part of an increasingly unusual publicity campaign.
In July 2006, Amazon.com created a page showing an upcoming 992-page, untitled, Thomas Pynchon novel. A description of the soon-to-be published novel appeared on Amazon purporting to be written by Pynchon himself. The description was taken down, prompting speculation over its authenticity, but the blurb was soon back up along with the title of Pynchon's new novel, "Against the Day".
Shortly before "Against the Day" was published, Pynchon's prose appeared in the program for "The Daily Show: Ten Fu@#ing Years (The Concert)", a retrospective on Jon Stewart's comedy-news broadcast "The Daily Show."
On December 6, 2006, Pynchon joined a campaign by many other major authors to clear Ian McEwan of plagiarism charges by sending a typed letter to his British publisher, which was published in the "Daily Telegraph" newspaper (Pynchon 2006b).
* "V." (March, 1963).
* "The Crying of Lot 49" (April 27, 1966).
* "Gravity's Rainbow" (February 28, 1973), 1974 National Book Award for fiction, judges' unanimous selection for Pulitzer Prize overruled by advisory board, awarded William Dean Howells Medal of the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1975 (award declined)
* "Slow Learner" (April, 1984), collection of early short stories
* "Vineland" (February, 1990)
* "Mason & Dixon" (April 30, 1997)
* "Against the Day" (November 21, 2006)
As well as fictional works, Pynchon has written essays, introductions, and reviews addressing subjects as diverse as missile security, the Watts Riots, Luddism and the work of Donald Barthelme. Some of his non-fiction pieces have appeared in the "New York Times Book Review" and "The New York Review of Books", and he has contributed blurbs for books and records. His 1984 Introduction to the "Slow Learner" collection of early stories is significant for its autobiographical candour. He has written introductions to at least three books, including the 1992 collection of Donald Barthelme's stories, "The Teachings of Don B." and, more recently, the Penguin Centenary Edition of George Orwell's novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four," which was published in 2003, and the Penguin Classics edition of "Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up to Me" written by Pynchon's close friend, Richard Fariña, and first published in 1966.
* Batchelor, J.C. "Thomas Pynchon is not Thomas Pynchon, or, This is End of the Plot Which Has No Name". "Soho Weekly News", April 22, 1976. (back)
* Bone, James. [http://www.suntimes.co.za:80/1998/06/07/lifestyle/life01.htm "Who the hell is he?] " "Sunday Times" (South Africa), June 7, 1998. (back)
* CNN. " [http://cgi.cnn.com/US/9706/05/pynchon/ Where's Thomas Pynchon?] " June 5, 1997. (back)
* CNN Book News. " [http://www.cnn.com/books/news/9909/29/nobel.prize/index.html Early Nobel announcement prompts speculation] ". September 29, 1999. (back)
* The Complete Review. " [http://www.complete-review.com/reviews/popus/pynchon.htm "Against the Day" by Thomas Pynchon] " 2006. (back)
* Corey, Irwin. " [http://www.irwincorey.org/routines.html Transcript of National Book Award acceptance speech] ", delivered April 18, 1974. (back)
* Ervin, Andrew. " [http://citypaper.net/articles/091400/ae.books.shtml Nobel Oblige] ". "Philadelphia City Paper" 14 – September 21, 2000. (back)
* Foster, Don. "Author Unknown: On the Trail of Anonymous". Henry Holt, New York, 2000. (back)
* Fowler, Douglas. "A Reader's Guide to Gravity's Rainbow". Ardis Press, 1980. (back)
* Frost, Garrison. " [http://www.theaesthetic.com/NewFiles/pynchon.html Thomas Pynchon and the South Bay] ". "The Aesthetic", 2003. (back)
* Getlin, Josh. " [http://www.calendarlive.com/printedition/calendar/cl-wk-quick22.3jun22,0,5673134.story?coll=cl-calendar Pynchon Novel Out in December] ". "LA Times", June 22, 2006. (back)
* Gibbs, Rodney. [http://www.themodernword.com/pynchon/paper_gibbs.html "A Portrait of the Luddite as a Young Man"] . Denver Quarterly 39.1, 2004. (back)
* Glenn, Joshua. " [http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2003/10/19/pynchon_and_homer/ Pynchon and Homer] ". "Boston Globe", October 19, 2003. (back)
* Gordon, Andrew. " [http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/agordon/pynchon.htm Smoking Dope with Thomas Pynchon: A Sixties Memoir] ". "The Vineland Papers: Critical Takes on Pynchon's Novel". (back)
* Grimes, William. [http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/01/11/home/28957.html "Toni Morrison Is '93 Winner Of Nobel Prize in Literature"] . "New York Times Book Review", October 8, 1993. (back)
* Gussow, Mel. [http://www.mondowendell.com/mask.htm "Pynchon's Letters Nudge His Mask"] . "New York Times", March 4, 1998. (back)
* Hitchens, Christopher. " [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1295/is_n10_v61/ai_19841067 Salman Rushdie: Even this colossal threat did not work. Life goes on.] " "The Progressive", October 1997. (back)
* Hospital, Janette Turner. "Collected Stories 1970 – 1995". University of Queensland Press, 1995. (back)
* Italie, Hillel. " [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20060720/ap_en_ot/books_thomas_pynchon_1 New Thomas Pynchon Novel is on the way] ". "Associated Press", July 20, 2006. (back)
* Kellogg, Caroline. " [http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/jacketcopy/2008/10/new-thomas-pync.html New Thomas Pynchon book on the way?] ". 'Jacket Copy', "Los Angeles Times", October 3, 2008. (back)
* Kihss, Peter. "Pulitzer Jurors; His Third Novel". "The New York Times", May 8, 1974, p. 38. (back)
* Klepper, Martin "Pynchon, Auster, DeLillo. Die amerikanische Postmoderne zwischen Spiel und Rekonstruktion." Campus, Frankfurt am Main u.a. 1996. (= Nordamerikastudien; 3) ISBN 3-593-35618-X
* Krämer, Oliver. " [http://www.sicetnon.org/modules.php?op=modload&name=PagEd&file=index&topic_id=40&page_id=208 Interview mit John M. Krafft, Herausgeber der 'Pynchon Notes'] ". "Sic et Non." (back)
* McLemee, Scott. [http://www.insidehighered.com/views/2006/11/15/mclemee You Hide, They Seek] "Inside Higher Ed", November 15, 2006. (back)
* "New York Review of Books". "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" (advertisement). Vol. 10, No. 3, February 15, 1968, p. 9. (back)
* Page, Adrian. "Towards a poetics of hypertext fiction". In "The Question of Literature: The Place on the Literary in Contemporary Theory", edited by Elizabeth B Bissell. Manchester University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-7190-5744-2. (back)
* Patterson, Troy (a). " [http://www.slate.com/id/2146152 Did the master make an appearance on his Amazon page?] " "Slate", July 20, 2006. (back)
* Patterson, Troy (b). " [http://www.slate.com/id/2146272 Mystery solved] " "Slate", July 20, 2006. (back)
* Plimpton, George. "Mata Hari with a Clockwork Eye, Alligators in the Sewer". Rev. of "V." "New York Times Book Review", April 21, 1963, p. 5. (back)
* Pynchon, Thomas. [http://themodernword.com/pynchon/pynchon_hamster.html "Voice of the Hamster"] , [http://www.themodernword.com/pynchon/pynchon_boys.html "The Boys"] , [http://www.themodernword.com/pynchon/pynchon_knight.html "Ye Legend of Sir Stupid and the Purple Knight".] "Oyster Bay High School Purple and Gold", 1952 – 53. (back)
* Pynchon, Thomas. " [http://www.themodernword.com/pynchon/pynchon_essays_watts.html A Journey into the Mind of Watts] ". "New York Times Magazine", June 12, 1966, pp. 34 – 35, 78, 80 – 82, 84. (back)
* Pynchon, Thomas. " [http://www.themodernword.com/pynchon/pynchon_essays_rushdie.html Words for Salman Rushdie] ". "New York Times Book Review", March 12, 1989, p. 29. (back)
* Pynchon, Thomas (a). [http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/159420120X/ Editorial review on "Untitled Thomas Pynchon"] , Amazon.com July 14, 2006. (back)
* Pynchon, Thomas (b). [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/graphics/2006/12/05/nwriter06big.gifLetter] to the "Daily Telegraph" newspaper, December 6, 2006. (back)
* Roeder, Bill. "After the Rainbow". "Newsweek" 92, August 7, 1978. (back)
* Royster, Paul. " [http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libraryscience/2/ Thomas Pynchon: A Brief Chronology] ". Faculty Publications, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 2005. (back)
* Rushdie, Salman. " [http://themodernword.com/pynchon/review_nyt_vineland.html Still Crazy After All Those Years] " The New York Times. 14 Jan. 1990. (back)
* Salm, Arthur. "A screaming comes across the sky (but not a photo)". San Diego "Union-Tribune", February 8, 2004. (back)
* Siegel, Jules. "Who is Thomas Pynchon, and why did he take off with my wife?" "Playboy", March 1977. The article appears in full in Siegel's book, "Lineland, Mortality and Mercy on the Internet's Pynchon-L@Waste.Org Discussion List". (back)
* Sweeney, Susan Elizabeth. "The V-Shaped Paradigm: Nabokov and Pynchon." Cycnos (France) 12.2 (1995): 173-80.
* Tanner, Tony. "Thomas Pynchon". Methuen & Co., 1982. (back)
* Ulin, David. " [http://www.salon.com/april97/media/media970425.html Gravity's End] ". "Salon", April 25, 1997. (back)
* Warner, Simon. " [http://www.popmatters.com/books/features/010802-hadju.shtml A king, a queen and two knaves?: An Interview with David Hajdu] ". "Pop Matters", August 2, 2001. (back)
* Weisenburger, Steven C. "A Gravity's Rainbow Companion: Sources and Contexts for Pynchon's Novel". University of Georgia Press, 1988. (back)
* Wisnicki, Adrian. "A Trove of New Works by Thomas Pynchon? Bomarc Service News Rediscovered." "Pynchon Notes" 46 – 49 (2000 – 1), pp. 9 – 34. (back)
* Young, Robert Clark. " [http://www.eastbaywriters.com/non_fiction/bob/biginnings.html One Writer’s Big Innings] ". "Black Warrior Review", Fall 1992. (back)
:"The following links were last verified on May 28, 2007.
* [http://tls.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,25339-2477997,00.html "Thomas Pynchon and the myth of invisibility"] : a review of "Against the Day" in the [http://www.the-tls.co.uk TLS] , December 1, 2006.
* [http://pynchonwiki.com/ The Thomas Pynchon Wiki]
* [http://www.randomhouse.co.uk/thomaspynchon/ Official UK publisher's site]
* [http://www.newenglandancestors.org/education/articles/research/special_guests/gary_boyd_roberts/48_659_448.asp The Ancestry of Novelist Thomas Pynchon]
* [http://www.hyperarts.com/pynchon/ HyperArts Pynchon Pages]
* [http://chumpsofchoice.blogspot.com/ Discussion group for "Against the Day"]
* [http://againsttheday.wordpress.com/ "Against the Day" Blog] * [http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=3673 Literary Encyclopedia biography]
* [http://www.pruefstand7.de/index-e.html Prüfstand 7] Information about the movie featuring scenes from "Gravity's Rainbow"
* [http://www.ottosell.de/pynchon/ Pynchon Index]
* [http://waste.org/pynchon-l The Pynchon-L mailing list]
* [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2006/12/06/nwriter06.xml Daily Telegraph article with Pynchon letter]
* " [http://www2.ham.muohio.edu/~krafftjm/pynchon.html Pynchon Notes] ," a journal operated by Miami University in Oxford, Ohio
* [http://pynchonoid.blogspot.com/ pynchonoid.blogspot.com]
* [http://www.pynchon.pomona.edu/ San Narciso Pynchon Page] , hosted in Claremont, California, "a town that looks a lot, in fact, like San Narciso"
* [http://www.themodernword.com/pynchon/index.html Spermatikos Logos]
* [http://www.teczagrawitacji.ovh.org/ Tęcza Grawitacji ('Gravity's Rainbow')] , a Polish Pynchon site
* [http://www.pynchonesque.blogspot.com/ Pynchonesque] , art inspired by Thomas Pynchon
* [http://home.teleport.com/~grladams/ Thomas Pynchon's Family Tree] , Thomas Pynchon's Family Tree
* [http://artfilm.ch/thomaspynchon.php Thomas Pynchon. a journey in the mind of p.] Film by Fosco and Donatello Dubini
NAME= Pynchon, Thomas Ruggles
SHORT DESCRIPTION= American short story writer and novelist
DATE OF BIRTH= May 8, 1937
PLACE OF BIRTH= Glen Cove, New York
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
Источник: Thomas Pynchon