Электронная книга: Karl Otfried Müller «Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie»

Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie

Полный вариант заголовка: «Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie : mit einer antikritischen Zugabe / von Karl Otfried Müller».

Издательство: "Библиотечный фонд" (1825)

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Die Dorier. 1 und 2 BuchПолный вариант заголовка: «Die Dorier : 1 Abtheilung. 1 und 2 Buch : 4 Bucher / von Karl Otfried Muller» — Библиотечный фонд, электронная книга Подробнее...1824электронная книга
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Karl Otfried Müller

Portrait of Karl Otfried Müller.

Karl Otfried Müller (August 28, 1797 – August 1, 1840), was a German scholar and Philodorian, or admirer of ancient Sparta, who introduced the modern study of Greek mythology.



He was born at Brieg (modern Brzeg) in Silesia. His father was a chaplain in the Prussian army,[1] and he was raised in the atmosphere of Protestant Pietism. He attended the gymnasium of his town. His university education was partly in Breslau (now Wrocław) and partly in Berlin. In Berlin, he was spurred towards the study of Greek literature, art and history by the influence of Philipp August Böckh. In 1817, after the publication of his first work, Aegineticorum liber, on the Aeginetans, he received an appointment at the Magdaleneum in Breslau, and in 1819 he was made adjunct professor of ancient literature at the University of Göttingen, his subject being the archaeology and history of ancient art. He deepened his understanding of Greek art by travelling in the summer of 1822 to the Netherlands, England and France.

Turning away from the Enlightenment conception of Greek myth as a reflection of a universal religion in its infancy, Müller placed the study squarely as the outcome of an encounter between the particular character of a people and a specific historical setting,[2] where, in the broadest sense it has remained, though his convictions that the core of each culture is uniquely its own led him to deny the influence of Egyptian art on Greek art,[3] already being recognised at the time.

Müller's position at Göttingen was made difficult by the political troubles which followed the accession of Ernest Augustus I of Hanover in 1837, and he applied for permission to travel, leaving Germany in 1839. In April of the following year he reached Greece, having spent the winter in Italy. He investigated the remains of ancient Athens, visited numerous places in Peloponnesus, and finally went to Delphi, where he began excavations. He was attacked by intermittent fever, of which he died at Athens. His grave is on the Colonus hilltop in Athens next to that of Charles Lenormant.


Bust of Müller at the University of Göttingen.

His aim was to form a vivid conception of Greek life as a whole.[1] Undoubtedly he wished to concentrate the results of his whole life of scholarly activity in his magnum opus, Geschichten hellenischen Stämme und Städte. However, he only managed to complete two volumes: Orchomenos und die Minyer (1820) and Die Dorier (1824). The latter includes the essay Über die Makedonier, on the settlements, origin and early history of the Macedonians. He introduced a new standard of accuracy in the cartography of ancient Greece. In 1828 he published Die Etrusker, a treatise on Etruscan antiquities.

His Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen Mythologie (1825), in which he avoided the views of G. F. Creuzer and Christian August Lobeck, prepared the way for the scientific investigation of myths. Working without the benefit of modern understanding of psychology, he offered steps towards the "internal idea" of myth and presented techniques for determining the age of a mythus from the mentions of it in literary sources and a notable chapter on how to separate the mythus from the modifications of poets and prose writers, and examined the relations that Homer and Hesiod bore to their traditions, all of this before the supportive contributions of modern archaeology, philological analysis, or the understanding of oral transmission of myth, a remarkable achievement.

The study of ancient art was promoted by his Handbuch der Archäologie der Kunst (1830; 3d ed. by Welcker, 1846; English trans. by J. Leitch, London, 1850) and Denkmäler der alten Kunst (1832), which he wrote in association with Carl Oesterley. The latter work was continued and completed by Wieseler (1846-56).

In the last years of his life he undertook to prepare, for the English Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, a history of Greek literature, which in 1841 appeared posthumously as Geschichte der griechischen Litteratur bis auf das Zeitalter Alexanders (4th ed., revised and continued by Heitz, 1882-84). It was translated into English from the author's manuscript as History of the Literature of Ancient Greece and published the previous year in London. Chapters i.-xxii. were translated by Sir George Cornewall Lewis; chapters xxiii.-xxxvi. by J. W. Donaldson, who carried the work down to the taking of Constantinople by the Turks. It remained one of the best books on the subject for many years.

Müller also published an admirable translation of the Eumenides of Aeschylus with introductory essays (1833). This was the object of a profound controversy in which Gottfried Hermann and his followers attacked him with great bitterness. Müller published new editions of Varro, De Lingua Latina (Leipzig, 1833) and Festus, De Significatione Verborum (Leipzig, 1839).


  • "A democracy likes a large mass and hates all divisions."[4]


His brothers were Julius Müller (1801–1878), a theologian, and Eduard Müller (1804–1875), a philologist.


  1. ^  "Müller, Karl Otfried". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 17 (9th ed.). 1884. 
  2. ^ Josine H. Blok, “Quests for a Scientific Mythology: F. Creuzer and K. O. Muller on History and Myth,” History and Theory 33.4, “Proof and Persuasion in History” (December 1994:26-52)
  3. ^ In his article “On the alleged Egyptian origin of Greek art” (“Ueber den angeblich ägyptischen Ursprung der griechischen Kunst,” Kunstblatt: Beiblatt der Morgenblatt 79 (1820), reprinted in Kleine deutsche Schriften.
  4. ^ The History and Antiquities of the Doric Race, Vol II, p. 396


External links

Источник: Karl Otfried Müller

См. также в других словарях:

  • Mythologie — (griech.), die Lehre von den Mythen (s. Mythus), hat zum eigentlichen Gegenstande die aus der Vorzeit überlieferten Erzählungen, in die sich die Vorstellungen von dem Entstehen, dem Leben und den Handlungen der Götter im Verhältnis zueinander und …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Mythologie — (v. gr.), ist die Wissenschaft von dem Mythus bei den alten heidnischen Völkern, u. da man unter Mythos (eigentlich Rede, Erzählung, dann eine Erzählung aus vorhistorischer Zeit) eine Erzählung, welche sich um ein göttliches Wesen dreht, od.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Griechische Mythologie — Griechische Mythologie. I. Die griechische Mythologie wurde an Reichthum, Mannichfaltigkeit u. Schönheit des Inhalts von keiner Mythologie eines anderen Volkes, selbst nicht von der der alten Inder erreicht. Alle Arten u. Formen des Naturlebens,… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Romantik: Die Mythen —   Kaum eine Epoche beschäftigte das Phänomen des Mythos so anhaltend wie die Romantik, wenngleich viele Wurzeln dieser Beschäftigung bis tief ins 18. Jahrhundert hinein zurückreichen. Seit Platon gibt es eine Kritik an den Mythen; in der… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Müller [2] — Müller, 1) Friedrich von, weimar. Kanzler, geb. 13. April 1779 in Kunreuth bei Forchheim, gest. 21. Okt. 1849, studierte die Rechte, trat 1801 in den weimarischen Staatsdienst, ward 1804 Regierungsrat und erreichte 1806 und 1807 bei Napoleon die… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • МИФОЛОГИЯ — (от греч. mythos предание, сказание и logos слово, понятие, учение) способ осмысления мира на ранних стадиях человеческой истории, фантастические повествования о его сотворении, о деяниях богов и героев. В М. Космос предстает как единое целое,… …   Философская энциклопедия

  • Римская религия и мифология — Р. религия в своем первоначальном развитии сводилась к анимизму, т. е. вере в одушевление природы. Древние италийцы поклонялись душам умерших, причем главным мотивом поклонения был страх перед сверхъестественной их силой. Этот религиозный страх,… …   Энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Ефрона

  • Müller [3] — Müller, 1) Johann, s. Regiomontanus. 2) Heinrich, geb. 18. Oct. 1631 in Lübeck, studirte seit 1645 in Rostock u. Greifswald, wurde 1651 Archidiakonus in Rostock u. akademischer Lehrer, 1659 Professor der Griechischen Sprache u. 1662 der Theologie …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Karl Otfried Müller — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Müller. Karl Otfried Müller (né le 28 août 1797 à Brzeg, mort le 1er août 1840 à Athènes) est un archéologue et un mythologue allemand. Il est connu pour ses travaux qui ont contribué à renouveler l étude de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Müller, Karl Otfried — ▪ German scholar born Aug. 28, 1797, Brieg, Silesia [now in Poland] died Aug. 1, 1840, Athens       German professor and scholar of classical Greek studies whose considerations of ancient Greece in a broad historical and cultural context began an …   Universalium

  • Сравнительное изучение религии — (вернее наука о религии) позитивная наука, занимающаяся историей эволюции религиозных явлений в связи с другими факторами психической и социальной жизни человечества. Главные науки, из которых С. изучение религии черпает материал для своих… …   Энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Ефрона

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