James D. Watson
name = James Dewey Watson
image_width = 200px
caption = James D. Watson
birth_date = birth date and age|1928|04|06
birth_place = Chicago, Illinois,, U.S.
residence = U.S., UK
nationality = American
field = molecular biologist
doctoral_advisor = Salvador Luria
known_for = DNA structure, Molecular biology
prizes = Nobel Prize (1962)
religion = None (Atheist) [Watson is identified as an atheist by his acquaintance, Rabbi Marc Gellman. " [http://www.newsweek.com/id/47164 Trying to Understand Angry Atheists: Why do nonbelievers seem to be threatened by the idea of God?] ", by Rabbi Marc Gellman, "Newsweek", 28 April 2006. Retrieved 11 November 2006.] [When asked by a student if he believed in God, Watson replied "Oh, no. Absolutely not... The biggest advantage to believing in God is you don't have to understand anything, no physics, no biology. I wanted to understand." cite news | url=http://www.vindy.com/local_news/279051929445300.php | title= Nobel Prize-winning scientist wows some, worries others | publisher=The Vindicator | author=JoAnne Viviano | date=19 October 2007 | accessdate=2007-10-19 ]
James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".
[ [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1962/index.html The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962] . Nobel Prize Site for Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962.] He studied at the University of Chicago and Indiana University and subsequently worked at the University of Cambridge's Cavendish Laboratory in England where he first met Francis Crick. ]
In 1956 he became a junior member of Harvard University's Biological Laboratories until 1976, but in 1968 served as Director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, New York and shifted its research emphasis to the study of cancer. In 1994 he became its President for ten years, and then subsequently served as its Chancellor until 2007, when he was forced into retirement by contoversy over several comments about race and intelligence. Between 1988 and 1992 he was associated with the National Institutes of Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project. He has written many science books, including the seminal textbook "The Molecular Biology of the Gene" (1965) and his bestselling book "The Double Helix" (1968) about the DNA Structure discovery.
Watson was born in Chicago, Illinois, on April 6 1928, the son of a businessman, also named James Dewey Watson, and Margaret Jean Mitchell
[cite book|title="Avoid Boring People"|author=James D. Watson|publisher=Knopf|year=2007|url=http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-280273-9.pdf|isbn=0375412840|format=PDF] . His father was of midwestern English descent] [cite web |url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/watson-bio.html |publisher=NobelPrize.org|year=1964|accessdate=2007-12-12|title=James Watson, The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962] . His mother's father Lauchlin Mitchell, a tailor, was from Glasgow, Scotland, and her mother, Lizzie Gleason, was the child of Irish parents from Tipperary] [cite web |url=http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/science/2007/10/watson_retires.html|publisher=The Guardian|date=2007-10-25|accessdate=2007-12-12|title=Watson retires] . Watson was fascinated with bird watching, a hobby he shared with his father.] [cite book |last=Anonymous |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |title=Biography J.D. Watson |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Xh0239nCqIYC&pg=PA767&sig=GQV33b8exnSIfQbMo7OlbWGt4SI#PPA809,M1 |series=Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1942-1962 |year=1999 |publisher=World Scientific |location=Hackensack, NJ |isbn=9-810-23411-2 |pages=809-810 |chapter= |quote= [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1962/watson-bio.html Excerpt from nobelprize.org] ] Watson appeared on Quiz Kids, a popular radio show that challenged precocious youngsters to answer questions. [cite web |author=Samuels, Rich |title=The Quiz Kids |date= |work=Broadcasting in Chicago, 1921-1989 |url=http://www.richsamuels.com/nbcmm/qk.html |accessdate=2007-11-20 ] Thanks to the liberal policy of University president Robert Hutchins, he enrolled at the University of Chicago at the age of 15.] [cite web |url=http://www-news.uchicago.edu/releases/07/070601.watson.shtml |title=Nobel laureate, Chicago native James Watson to receive University of Chicago. Alumni Medal June 2 |date=2007-06-01 |publisher=The University of Chicago News Office |accessdate=2007-11-20 ] After reading Erwin Schrödinger's book "What Is Life?" in 1946, Watson changed his professional ambitions from the study of ornithology to genetics. [cite book |last=Friedberg |first=Errol C. |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=The Writing Life of James D. Watson |year=2005 |publisher=Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press |location=Cold Spring Harbor, NY |isbn=978-087969700-6 [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v433/n7027/full/433686a.html Reviewed by Lewis Wolpert, "Nature", (2005) 433:686-687.] ] He earned his B.S. in Zoology from the University of Chicago in 1947. In his autobiography, "Avoid Boring People", Watson describes the University of Chicago as an idyllic academic institution where he was instilled with the capacity for critical thought and an ethical compulsion not to suffer fools who impeded his search for truth, in contrast to his description of his later work at Harvard University.]
He was attracted to the work of Salvador Luria. Luria eventually shared a Nobel Prize for his work on the Luria-Delbrück experiment, which concerned the nature of genetic mutations. Luria was part of a distributed group of researchers who were making use of the viruses that infect bacteria, called bacteriophages. Luria and Max Delbrück were among the leaders of this new "Phage Group", an important movement of geneticists from experimental systems such as Drosophila towards microbial genetics. Early in 1948 Watson began his Ph.D. research in Luria's laboratory at Indiana University and that spring he got to meet Delbrück in Luria's apartment and again that summer during Watson's first trip to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL). [cite web |url=http://www.cshl.edu/public/SCIENCE/jdw.html |title=James D. Watson (biographical information) |accessdate=2007-11-20 |author= |date= |work= |publisher=Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory] The Phage Group was the intellectual medium within which Watson became a working scientist. Importantly, the members of the Phage Group had a sense that they were on the path to discovering the physical nature of the gene. In 1949 Watson took a course with Felix Haurowitz that included the conventional view of that time: that proteins were genes and able to replicate themselves. [cite book |last=Putnum |first=Frank W. |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Biographical Memoirs - Felix Haurowitz|url=http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=4547&page=144 |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition=volume 64 |series= |date= |year=1994 |publisher=The National Academies Press |location=Washington, D.C. |isbn=0-309-06978-5 |pages=134-163 |quote=Among [Haurowitz's] students was Jim Watson, then a graduate student of Luria. ] The other major molecular component of chromosomes, DNA, was thought by many to be a "stupid tetranucleotide", serving only a structural role to support the proteins. However, even at this early time, Watson, under the influence of the Phage Group, was aware of the Avery-MacLeod-McCarty experiment, which suggested that DNA was the genetic molecule. Watson's research project involved using X-rays to inactivate bacterial viruses. [Watson, J.D. 1950. [http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=385941&blobtype=pdf The properties of x-ray inactivated bacteriophage. I. Inactivation by direct effect] . "Journal of Bacteriology" 60:697-718] He gained his Ph.D. in Zoology at Indiana University in 1950 (at age 22).
Watson then went to Copenhagen in September 1950 for a year of postdoctoral research, first heading to the laboratory of biochemist Herman Kalckar.
Kalckar was interested in the enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acids, and wanted to use phages as an experimental system. Watson, however, wanted to explore the structure of DNA, and his interests did not coincide with Kalckar's. After working part of the year with Kalcker, Watson spent the remainder of his time in Copenhagen conducting experiments with microbial physiologist Ole Maaloe, then a member of the Phage Group. [cite journal |last=Putmum |first=F.W. |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=1993 |month= |title=Growing up in the golden age of protein science |journal=Protein Science |volume=2 |issue= |pages=pp. 1536–1542 |id= |url=http://www.proteinscience.org/cgi/reprint/2/9/1536.pdf |accessdate= |quote= |format=PDF] The experiments, which Watson had learned of during the previous summer's Cold Spring Harbor phage conference, included the use of radioactive phosphate as a tracer to determine which molecular components of phage particles actually infect the target bacteria during viral infection. [cite book |last=McElheny |first=Victor K. |title=Watson and DNA: Making a Scientific Revolution |edition= |series= |year=2004 |publisher=Basic Books |location= |language= |isbn=0-738-20866-3 |pages=p. 28 |quote= ] The intention was to determine whether protein or DNA was the genetic material, but upon consultation with Max Delbrück,] they determined that their results were inconclusive and could not specifically identify the newly labeled molecules as DNA. [cite journal |last=Maaløe |first=O. |coauthors=J.D. Watson |year=1951 |month= |title=The transfer of radioactive phosphorus from parental to progeny phage |journal=PNAS |volume=37 |issue= |pages=pp. 507–513 |pmid=16578386 |url=http://www.pnas.org/cgi/reprint/37/8/507.pdf |accessdate= |quote=|doi=10.1073/pnas.37.8.507 |format=PDF] Watson never developed a constructive interaction with Kalckar, but he did accompany Kalckar to a meeting in Italy where Watson saw Maurice Wilkins talk about his X-ray diffraction data for DNA. Watson was now certain that DNA had a definite molecular structure that could be solved. [Judson, H. F. (1979) "The Eighth Day of Creation. Makers of the Revolution in Biology". New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-6712-2540-5. See chapter 2.]
In 1951 the chemist Linus Pauling published his model of the protein alpha helix, a result that grew out of Pauling's relentless efforts in X-ray crystallography and molecular model building. After obtaining some results from his phage and other [http://archives.cshl.edu/R/GNCJKTHBM7E7M3ALB43BLV2SNXC2GKHNKYU5M3HIX5Q985CBKY-00055?func=collections-result&collection_id=1302 experimental research] conducted at Indiana University, Statens seruminstitute (Denmark), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and the California Institute of Technology, Watson now had the desire to learn to perform X-ray diffraction experiments so that he could work to determine the structure of DNA. That summer, Luria met John Kendrew and arranged for a new postdoctoral research project for Watson in England.
In 1968, Watson married Elizabeth Lewis and became the Director of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Between 1970 and 1972 Watson's two sons were born and by 1974 the young family made CSH their permanent residence.Watson served as the Laboratory's Director and President for 35 years, and later assumed the role of Chancellor. In October 2007 Watson resigned as a result of controversial remarks about race made to the press. Watson has one son who has schizophrenia. [ [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-488232/Science-museum-bans-DNA-genius-centre-race-row.html Science museum bans DNA genius at centre of race row] ]
tructure of DNA
Double helix|Name=James D. Watson|Photo=JamesDWatson.jpg|Caption=James Watson in the lab. In October 1951, James Watson moved to Clare College, Cambridge and started at the Cavendish Laboratory, the physics department of the University of Cambridge, with a fellowship from the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Here he shared an office with Francis Crick where they found they had similar scientific interests and initiated a collaboration to discover the structure of DNA. Crick soon solved the mathematical equations that govern helical diffraction theory; Watson knew all of the key DNA results of the Phage Group. [Most of the biographical account comes from Watson's 1968 autobiographical account, "". The book was very controversial when it came out, though, as many of the participants still living disputed its account, especially of the role and personality of Franklin. In fact, the originally intended publisher, Harvard University Press, turned the manuscript down. For an edition which contains critical responses, book reviews, and copies of the original scientific papers, see James D. Watson, "The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA", Norton Critical Edition, Gunther Stent, ed. (New York: Norton, 1980).]
In late 1951 Crick and Watson began a series of informal exchanges with Maurice Wilkins during which Wilkins gave some of Rosalind Franklin's findings to Watson and Crick without her permission or knowledge. In November, Watson attended a seminar by Franklin. She spoke about the X-ray diffraction data she had collected with Raymond Gosling at King's College London. The data indicated that DNA was a helix of some sort. Soon after this seminar, Watson and Crick constructed an incorrect molecular model of DNA in which the phosphate backbones were on the inside of the structure. Franklin asserted that the phosphates almost certainly were on the outside, not the inside. Watson and Crick eventually came to see that she was right and used this information in their final determination of the helical structure. In 1952, the final details of the chemical structure of the DNA backbone were determined by biochemists like Alexander Todd.
During 1952, Crick and Watson had been asked not to work on making molecular models of the structure of DNA.
[Bragg's decision near the end of 1951 that Watson and Crick should not work on DNA structure is described on page 128 of "The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology" by Horace Freeland Judson, published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (1996) ISBN 0-87969-478-5. Bragg gave Watson permission to start DNA model work again in January 1953 (see page 162).] Instead, Watson's official assignment was to perform X-ray diffraction experiments on tobacco mosaic virus. Tobacco mosaic virus was the first virus to be identified (1886) and purified (1935). Since electron microscopy revealed that virus crystals form inside infected plants, it made sense to isolate this virus for study by X-ray crystallography. Early X-ray diffraction images for tobacco mosaic virus had been collected before World War II. By 1954, Watson had deduced from his X-ray diffraction images that the tobacco mosaic virus had a helical structure. [Watson, J.D. 1954. The structure of tobacco mosaic virus. I. X-ray evidence of a helical arrangement of sub-units around the longitudinal axis. "Biochim Biophys Acta." 13:10-19. Entrez Pubmed|13140277] Despite his official assignment, the lure of solving the puzzle of DNA structure continued to tantalize Watson; with his friend Crick, he continued to think about how to determine the structure of DNA.]
In April 1952, Watson's Ph.D. research adviser, Luria, was to speak at a meeting in England. However, Luria was not allowed to travel due to cold war fears over his Marxist leanings. Watson used Luria's speaking slot to talk about his own work with radioactive DNA and the results of others in the Phage Group that indicated the genetic material of phages was DNA. During this meeting, Watson discussed with others prior discoveries by other researchers such as the calculated width of the B-form DNA molecule as determined by X-ray diffraction studies. By 1952 estimates from X-ray data and electron microscopy agreed that the diameter of DNA was about 2 nanometers.
Watson and Crick benefited from three travel-related strokes of luck in 1952. First, Erwin Chargaff visited England in 1952 and inspired Watson and Crick to learn more about nucleotide biochemistry. There are four nucleobases: guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thymine (T) in DNA. The so-called Chargaff ratios experimental results indicated that the amounts of G and C are equal and the amounts of A and T are equal. Jerry Donohue explained to Watson and Crick the correct structures of the four bases. The second travel-related event was that Linus Pauling's plans to visit England were disrupted. His planned visit was canceled for political reasons and he never gained access to the King's College X-ray diffraction data for DNA until it was published in 1953. The third was that when Chargaff and Pauling crossed the Atlantic together, they did not get along, so Pauling avoided Chargaff all across the ocean when they could have compared notes on DNA's base pairs!
In 1953, Crick and Watson were given permission by their lab director and Wilkins to again try to make a structural model of DNA. At this time, Crick and Watson became aware of a research progress report containing some of Franklin's findings. This report contained the data that she had previously discussed in her research seminar of November 1951. Crick and Watson continued to make use of Franklin's results in their thinking about the structure of DNA.
Watson's key contribution was in discovering the nucleotide base pairs, the key to the structure and function of DNA. This key discovery was made in the Pauling "tradition", by playing with molecular models.Since he would have to wait for the Cavendish machine shop to make tin models of the four nucleobases, Watson, on February 28, 1953 made a molecule model of each using a straight edge, an exacto knife, white cardboard and paste. These molecules are all flat in their ring structures, so Watson could slide the cardboard models around on a table and examine how they might interact and fit together. After looking at the possible arrangements of his cardboard molecule models, Watson soon realized that the larger two-ring A and G nucleobases (technically referred to as purines) could be paired with the smaller one-ring T and C nucleobases, known as pyrimidines. Watson examined the possibility of hydrogen bonds between the pairs of purines and pyrimidines. After moving the A and T molecules around on the table he sat at, he brought together the distal (relative to its five-member ring) nitrogen of the A and the correct nitrogen-based hydrogen of T. Fortunately, the A and T were lying on the table both "face up" in that they were in the orientation as they occur in DNA and Watson then noticed the possibility of the second hydrogen bond involving an oxygen atom. He quickly saw that the other pair, C's nitrogen and G's nitrogen-based hydrogen had a similar relationship and that those two molecules formed three such bonds. As the accompanying diagram indicates, all five hydrogens involved have a covalent bond to a nitrogen (which has no "double" bond) and form the weaker hydrogen bond with either a nitrogen or an oxygen that each have one double valence bond to a carbon atom.
Watson then saw that the two pairs could be superimposed on each other with similar overall structure. In particular, the hexagonal rings were equidistant and the relative orientations of the five-member rings of the "big" molecules, A and G were the same. The nitrogens with the "squiggly" lines are the ones that attach, as "ladder rungs", to the helical backbone and that these nitrogen atoms are equidistant and also superimpose in the two pairs, allowing the helical structure to be smooth. Watson sensed that too many pieces were falling into place for this to be anything but the answer. He was correct. The base pairs discovered by Watson were consistent with the biochemical data Chargaff had already published.
Watson and Crick proceeded to deduce the double helix structure of DNA which they submitted to the journal "Nature" and was subsequently published on April 25 1953.
Watson, Crick, and Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1962 for their research on the structure of nucleic acids. Some regret that Franklin did not live long enough to share in the Nobel Prize. [cite news | title = No Nobel Prize for Whining | author = Judson, H.F. | date = 2003-10-20 | url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health&res=9C02E4DE123EF933A15753C1A9659C8B63 | publisher = "New York Times" | accessdate = 2007-08-03 ] Watson mentions in his autobiography, "Avoid Boring People", that he was refused a $1,000 raise in salary after winning the Nobel. ]
"The Double Helix"
In 1968 Watson wrote "The Double Helix", one of the Modern Library's 100 best non-fiction books. The account is the sometimes painful story of not only the discovery of the structure of DNA, but the personalities, conflicts and controversy surrounding their work.
Controversy attended the publication of the book. Harvard professor Richard Lewontin wrote that the book had "debased the currency of his [Watson's] own life", and molecular biologist Robert L. Sinsheimer described Watson's portrayal of science as a "clawing climb up a slippery slope, impeded by the authority of fools, to be made with cadged data ... with malice toward most, and charity toward none."
[ " [http://harvardmagazine.com/2008/01/chairman-of-the-bored.html Chairman of the Bored] ", Steven Shapin, Harvard Magazine, January-February 2008 ] It was originally to be published by Harvard University Press, but after objections from both Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins, among others, Watson's home university where he had been a member of the biology faculty since 1955, dropped the book and it was instead published by a commercial publisher, an incident which caused some scandal. Watson's original title was to have been "Honest Jim," in part to raise the ethical questions of bypassing Franklin to gain access to her X-ray diffraction data before they were published. If all that mattered was beating Pauling to the structure of DNA, then Franklin's cautious approach to analysis of the X-ray data was simply an obstacle that Watson needed to run around. Wilkins and others were there at the right time to help Watson and Crick do so. ]
"The Double Helix" changed the way the public viewed scientists and the way they work. [Watson, J.D. and G. Stent (preface). 1980. "The double helix : a personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA." Norton: New York. ISBN 0-393-95075-1.] In the same way, Watson's first textbook, "The Molecular Biology of the Gene", set a new standard for textbooks, particularly through the use of concept heads—brief declarative subheadings. Its style has been emulated by almost all succeeding textbooks. His next great success was "Molecular Biology of the Cell", although here his role was more that of coordinator of an outstanding group of scientist-writers. His third textbook was "Recombinant DNA", which used the ways in which genetic engineering has brought us so much new information about how organisms function. The textbooks are still in print.
In 1989, Watson's achievement and the success led to his appointment as the Head of the Human Genome Project at the National Institutes of Health, a position he held until April 10, 1992. [ [http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NHGRI.htm The NIH Almanac] ] Watson left the Genome Project after conflicts with the new NIH Director, Bernadine Healy. Watson was opposed to Healy's attempts to acquire patents on gene sequences, and any ownership of the "laws of nature." Two years before stepping down from the Genome Project, he had stated his opinion on this long and ongoing controversy which he saw as an illogical barrier to research; he said, "The nations of the world must see that the human genome belongs to the world's people, as opposed to its nations." He left within weeks of the 1992 announcement that the NIH would be applying for patents on brain-specific cDNAs.
[Pollack, R.. 1994. "Signs of Life: The Language and Meanings of DNA". Houghton Mifflin Company, p. 95. ISBN 0-395-73530-0.] In 1994, Watson became President of CSHL. Francis Collins took over the role as Director of the Human Genome Project. He became the second person [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/01/science/01gene.html?_r=1&oref=slogin Genome of DNA Discoverer Is Deciphered] "NYT", June 1, 2007.] to publish his fully sequenced [http://jimwatsonsequence.cshl.edu genome] online, after it was presented to him on May 31, 2007 by 454 Life Sciences Corporation in collaboration with scientists at the Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine. "'I am putting my genome sequence on line to encourage the development of an era of personalized medicine, in which information contained in our genomes can be used to identify and prevent disease and to create individualized medical therapies,' said CSHL Chancellor Watson." [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, June 28, 2003. [http://www.cshl.edu/public/releases/07_genotype_viewer.html Watson Genotype Viewer Now On Line] . Press release. Retrieved on September 16, 2007.] ]
During his tenure as a professor at Harvard, Watson participated in several political protests:
* Vietnam War: While a professor at Harvard University, Watson, along with "12 Faculty members of the department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology" including one other Nobel prize winner, spearheaded a resolution for "the immediate withdrawal of U.S. forces' from Vietnam." [ [http://www.thecrimson.harvard.edu/printerfriendly.aspx?ref=350648 "Faculty Support Grows For Anti-War Proposal"] , "The Harvard Crimson", October 3, 1969. November 4, 2007.]
* Nuclear proliferation and environmentalism: In 1975, on the "thirtieth anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima," Watson along with "over 2000 scientists and engineers" spoke out against nuclear proliferation to President Ford in part because of the "lack of a proven method for the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste" and because "The writers of the declaration see the proliferation of nuclear plants as a major threat to American liberties and international safety because they say safeguard procedures are inadequate to prevent terrorist theft of commercial reactor-produced plutonium." [ [http://www.thecrimson.harvard.edu/article.aspx?ref=269580"Three Harvard Scientists Lead Call to Stop Nuclear Reactors"] , "The Harvard Crimson", August 5, 1975. November 4, 2007.]
Watson's sometimes abrasive and aggressive personality (once described by E. O. Wilson as "the most unpleasant human being I had ever met"
) has made him the subject of several controversies; the controversy over his book "The Double Helix" was merely one such example. In his autobiography, "Avoid boring People", he describes his academic colleagues as "dinosaurs", "deadbeats", "fossils", "has-beens", "mediocre", and "vapid".
Use of King's College results
An enduring controversy has been generated by Watson and Crick's use of DNA X-ray diffraction data collected by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling. The controversy arose from the fact that some of Franklin's unpublished data was used by Watson and Crick in their construction of the double helix model of DNA.
[Judson, H.F. 1996. "The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology". Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, chapter 3. ISBN 0-87969-478-5.] Franklin's experimental results provided estimates of the water content of DNA crystals and these results were consistent with the two sugar-phosphate backbones being on the outside of the molecule. Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones had to be on the outside. Her identification of the space group for DNA crystals revealed to Crick that the two DNA strands were antiparallel. The X-ray diffraction images collected by Gosling and Franklin provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. Franklin's experimental work thus proved crucial in Watson and Crick's discovery. Watson and Crick had three sources for Franklin's unpublished data: 1) her 1951 seminar, attended by Watson, 2) discussions with Wilkins, who worked in the same laboratory with Franklin, 3) a research progress report that was intended to promote coordination of Medical Research Council-supported laboratories. Watson, Crick, Wilkins and Franklin all worked in MRC laboratories.]
Prior to publication of the double helix structure, Watson and Crick had little interaction with Franklin. Crick and Watson felt that they had benefited from collaborating with Wilkins. They offered him a co-authorship on the article that first described the double helix structure of DNA. Wilkins turned down the offer, a fact that may have led to the terse character of the acknowledgment of experimental work done at King's College in the eventual published paper. Rather than make any of the DNA researchers at King's College co-authors on the Watson and Crick double helix article, the solution that was arrived at was to publish two additional papers from King's College along with the helix paper. Biographer Brenda Maddox suggested that because of the importance of her work to Watson and Crick's model building, Franklin should have had her name on the original Watson and Crick manuscript.
[Maddox, B. 2003. "Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA". Harper Perennial. ISBN 0-060-98508-9.] Franklin may have never known the extent to which her unpublished data had helped in the double helix discovery. According to one critic, unprotected by libel laws, Watson's portrayal of Franklin in "The Double Helix" was negative, giving the appearance that she was Wilkins' assistant and was unable to interpret her own DNA data. [Elkin, L.O. 2003. [http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-56/iss-3/p42.html "Rosalind Franklin and the Double Helix"] . "Physics Today" 56(3):42.] ]
In his book "The Double Helix", Watson described being intimidated by Franklin and that they were unable to establish constructive scientific interactions during the time period when Franklin was doing DNA research. In the book's epilogue, written after Franklin's death, Watson acknowledges his early impressions of Franklin were often wrong, that she faced enormous barriers as a woman in the field of science even though her work was superb, and that it took years to overcome their bickering before appreciating Franklin's generosity and integrity.
A review of the handwritten correspondence from Franklin to Watson, located in the archives at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, reveals that the two scientists later had exchanges of constructive scientific correspondence. In fact, Franklin consulted with Watson on her Tobacco Mosaic Virus RNA research. Franklin's letters begin on friendly terms with "Dear Jim", and conclude with equally benevolent and respectful sentiments like "Best Wishes, Yours, Rosalind". Each of the scientists published their own unique contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA in separate articles, and all of the contributors published their findings in the same volume of "Nature". These classic molecular biology papers are identified as: Watson J.D. and Crick F.H.C. "A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid" "Nature" 171, 737-738 (1953),
[Watson, J.D. and F.H. Crick. 1953. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/watsoncrick.pdf A structure for deoxyribose nucleic acids] . "Nature" 171:737-738. doi:10.1038/171737a0] Wilkins M.H.F., Stokes A.R. & Wilson, H.R. "Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids" Nature 171, 738-740 (1953),] [Wilkins, M.H.F., Stokes A.R. and H.R. Wilson. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/wilkins.pdf Molecular Structure of Deoxypentose Nucleic Acids] . "Nature" 171:738-740 doi:10.1038/171738a0 ] Franklin R. and Gosling R.G. "Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate" "Nature" 171, 740-741 (1953).] [Franklin R. and R.G. Gosling. 1953. [http://www.nature.com/nature/dna50/franklingosling.pdf Molecular Configuration in Sodium Thymonucleate] . "Nature" "171":740-741 doi:10.1038/171740a0] Franklin did not receive a Nobel Prize for her important contribution because the Nobel Prize is not awarded posthumously. [ [http://nobelprize.org/nobelfoundation/statutes.html#par4 Statutes of the Nobel Foundation, § 4] ] ]
The wording on the DNA sculpture (which was donated by James Watson) outside Clare College's Memorial Court, Cambridge, England is:
On the base:
* "These strands unravel during cell reproduction. Genes are encoded in the sequence of bases."
* "The double helix model was supported by the work of Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins."
On the helices:
* "The structure of DNA was discovered in 1953 by Francis Crick and James Watson while Watson lived here at Clare."
* "The molecule of DNA has two helical strands that are linked by base pairs Adenine - Thymine or Guanine - Cytosine."
The aluminium sculpture stands fifteen feet high. It took a pair of technicians two weeks to build it. For the artist responsible it was an opportunity to create a monument that brings together the themes of science and nature; Charles Jencks, Sculptor said "It embraces the trees, you can sit on it and the ground grows up and it twists out of the ground. So it's truly interacting with living things like the turf, and that idea was behind it and I think it does celebrate life and DNA". Tony Badger, Master of Clare, said: "It is wonderful to have this lasting reminder of his achievements while [James Watson] was at Clare and the enormous contribution he and Francis Crick have made to our understanding of life on earth."
tatement claiming links between race and intelligence
On October 14, 2007, a biographical article written by one of Watson's former assistants
, Charlotte Hunt-Grubbe, appeared in the "Sunday Times Magazine" in anticipation of his soon to be released, in the UK, memoir "Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science".
Watson was quoted as saying he was "inherently gloomy about the prospect of Africa" as Hunt-Grubbe stated that Watson's "hope" was "everyone is equal" but quoted him as having said "people who have to deal with black employees find this not true." Furthermore, she suggested that Watson believed "you should not discriminate on the basis of colour" by quoting him as having said
Watson was then attributed as having written
The quotes attributed to him drew attention and criticism from press in several countries and was widely discussed on CNN
, the BBC , several papers , peers and by civil rights advocates. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21362732/ Race remarks get Nobel winner in trouble] , "MSNBC and AP", October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 18, 2007.] The common perception was that of Watson claiming a link between race and intelligence with the BBC stating that " [Watson] claimed black people were less intelligent than white people".] In his book, the origin of the final written quote, Watson does not directly mention race as a factor in his hypothesized divergence of intellect between geographically isolated populations. [cite journal |last=Watson |first=James |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |month=September/October |title=Blinded by Science. An exclusive excerpt from Watson's new memoir, Avoid Boring People: Lessons from a Life in Science. |journal=02138 Magazine |volume= |issue= |pages=p. 102 |id= |url=http://www.02138mag.com/magazine/article/1488-3.html |accessdate= 2007-11-28 |quote=As we find the human genes whose malfunctioning gives rise to such devastating developmental failures, we may well discover that sequence differences within many of them also lead to much of the observable variation in human IQs. A priori, there is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our desire to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so. ]
On October 18th, The Science Museum in London cancelled a talk that Watson was scheduled to give the following day,
[ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/7050020.stm "Museum drops race row scientist"] , BBC, October 18, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.] stating that they believed Watson's comments had "gone beyond the point of acceptable debate." On the same day the Board of Trustees at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory suspended Watson's administrative responsibilities, stating that Cquote| this action follows the Board’s public statement yesterday disagreeing with the comments attributed to Dr. Watson in the October 14, 2007 edition of The Sunday Times U.K. [Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory. October 18, 2007. [http://www.cshl.edu/public/releases/07_statement2.html Statement by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Board of Trustees and President Bruce Stillman, Ph.D. Regarding Dr. Watson’s Comments in The Sunday Times on October 14, 2007] . Press release. Retrieved October 24, 2007.] that they "vehemently disagree with...and are bewildered and saddened" by.] [Wigglesworth, K. [http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-sci-watson26oct26,1,7818665.story?coll=la-headlines-world&ctrack=1&cset=trueuted DNA pioneer quits after race comments] , "L.A. Times", October 26th, 2007. Retrieved December 5th, 2007] ]
Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute, a position inherited from Watson, said
On October 19th, Watson issued an apology, stating that he was "mortified" and "cannot understand how I could have said what I am quoted as having said." [van Marsh, A. [http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/10/18/nobel.apology/index.html "Nobel-winning biologist apologizes for remarks about blacks"] , CNN, October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.]
[Watson, J.D. [http://comment.independent.co.uk/commentators/article3075642.ece "James Watson: To question genetic intelligence is not racism"] , "Independent", October 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007] He also claimed to ]
Clarifying his position further, Watson explained Cquote| I have always fiercely defended the position that we should base our view of the world on the state of our knowledge, on fact, and not on what we would like it to be. This is why genetics is so important. For it will lead us to answers to many of the big and difficult questions that have troubled people for hundreds, if not thousands, of years.
...Since 1978, when a pail of water was dumped over my Harvard friend E O Wilson for saying that genes influence human behaviour, the assault against human behavioural genetics by wishful thinking has remained vigorous.
But irrationality must soon recede ... science is not here to make us feel good. It is to answer questions in the service of knowledge and greater understanding.
...We do not yet adequately understand the way in which the different environments in the world have selected over time the genes which determine our capacity to do different things. The overwhelming desire of society today is to assume that equal powers of reason are a universal heritage of humanity. It may well be. But simply wanting this to be the case is not enough. This is not science.
To question this is not to give in to racism. This is not a discussion about superiority or inferiority, it is about seeking to understand differences, about why some of us are great musicians and others great engineers.
Despite Watson's expressed belief in the importance of scientific inquiry into the relationship between heredity and intelligence, a number of news sources reported that Watson was "retracting" his earlier statements on this topic. For example, the journal "Nature" reportedCquote| Watson has apologized and retracted the outburst... He acknowledged that there is no evidence for what he claimed about racial differences in intelligence.
[ [http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v449/n7165/full/449948a.html " Watson's folly"] , "Nature", October 24, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2008.] ] "Nature" went on to say that the controversy and cancellations potentially could suppress scientific inquiry by geneticists who are studying the differences between different human population groups.
Despite the apology and subsequent attempt to clarify his position the controversy continued. He returned to the US and Cold Spring Harbor on the 19th October putting his further engagements in doubt. The University of Edinburgh formally retracted an invitation to the "DNA, Dolly and Other Dangerous Ideas: The Destiny of 21st Century Science" Enlightenment Lecture on October 22nd.
[" [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/10/19/healthscience/EU-SCI-Britain-Controversial-Scientist.php "Watson Returns to USA after race row"] ", "International Herald Tribune", October 19, 2007. Retrieved on November 10, 2007] ]
Watson resigned from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on October 25th. [http://www.technewsworld.com/story/60001.html "DNA Pioneer Watson Resigns Amid Cloud of Scandal" By Malcolm Ritter AP 10/25/07 11:29 AM PT]
[" [http://www.cnn.com/2007/TECH/science/10/25/watson.resigns/index.html "Nobel prize-winning biologist resigns."] ", "CNN", October 25, 2007. Retrieved on October 25, 2007.] Watson cited reasons for his retirement other than the controversy, though did refer to it. ]
On December 9, 2007, a Sunday Times article
[Jonathan Leake [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/science/article3022190.ece DNA pioneer James Watson is blacker than he thought] , "Sunday Times", 9 December, 2007. Retrieved 9 December, 2007.] reported a claim by deCODE Genetics that 16% of Watson's DNA is of African origin and 9% is of Asian origin. deCODE's methods were not reported and details of the analysis were not published. According to deCODE's Kari Stefansson, the analysis relied on an error-ridden version of Watson's full genome sequence, and Stefansson "doubts [. . .] whether the 16 percent figure will hold up"] [Chris Wilson [http://www.slate.com/id/2180067/ What does it mean to say James Watson is 16 percent African?] , "Slate", 14 December, 2007. Retrieved 29 February, 2008.] In 2008 Watson was interviewed by Henry Louis Gates regarding his views on race, intelligence, and other controversial subjects. [cite web|url=http://www.theroot.com/id/46685|title=The Science of Racism|year=2008] [cite web|url=http://www.theroot.com/id/46680/page/1|title=The Science of Racism|year=2008] ]
* Watson has repeatedly supported genetic screening and genetic engineering in public lectures and interviews, arguing that stupidity is a disease and the "really stupid" bottom 10% of people should be cured.
[Bhattacharya, S. [http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3451 "Stupidity should be cured, says DNA discoverer"] , New Scientist News Service, February 28, 2003. Retrieved June 24, 2007.] He has also suggested that beauty could be genetically engineered, saying "People say it would be terrible if we made all girls pretty. I think it would be great."]
* He has been quoted in "The Sunday Telegraph" as stating: "If you could find the gene which determines sexuality and a woman decides she doesn't want a homosexual child, well, let her." [Macdonald, V. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/htmlContent.jhtml?html=/archive/1997/02/16/nabort16.html "Abort babies with gay genes, says Nobel winner"] , "The Telegraph", February 16, 1997. Retrieved on October 24, 2007.] The biologist Richard Dawkins wrote a letter to "The Independent" claiming that Watson's position was misrepresented by "The Sunday Telegraph" article, and that Watson would equally consider the possibility of having a heterosexual child to be just as valid as any other reason for abortion, to emphasise that Watson is in favor of allowing choice. [Dawkins, R. [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_19970219/ai_n14094532 "Letter: Women to decide on gay abortion"] , "The Independent" via findarticles.com, February 19, 2007. Retrieved October 24, 2007.]
* On the issue of obesity, Watson has also been quoted as saying: "Whenever you interview fat people, you feel bad, because you know you're not going to hire them."
[Abate, T. [http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/11/13/MN111208.DTL "Nobel Winner's Theories Raise Uproar in Berkeley Geneticist's views strike many as racist, sexist"] , "San Francisco Chronicle", November 13, 2000. Retrieved on October 24, 2007.] ]
* Watson also had quite a few disagreements with Craig Venter regarding his use of EST fragments while Venter worked at NIH. Venter went on to found Celera genomics and continued his feud with Watson through the privately funded venture. Watson was even quoted as calling Venter "Hitler." [Shreeve. J. 2005. "The Genome War: How Craig Venter Tried to Capture the Code of Life and Save the World". Ballantine Books, p. 48. ISBN 0-345-43374-2.]
* While speaking at a conference in 2000, Watson had suggested a link between skin color and sex drive, hypothesizing that dark-skinned people have stronger libidos.
[Thompson C. and A. Berger. 2000. [http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/321/7252/12 Agent provocateur pursues happiness] . "British Medical Journal" 321:12.] His lecture, complete with slides of bikini-clad women, argued that extracts of melanin — which give skin its color — had been found to boost subjects' sex drive. "That's why you have Latin lovers," he said, according to people who attended the lecture. "You've never heard of an English lover. Only an English patient." [citeweb|url=http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/WireStory?id=3743042&page=1|title="UK Museum Cancels Scientist's Lecture"|publisher=ABC NEWS|date=2007-10-17|accessdate=2008-05-28] ]
*Chadarevian, S. (2002) "Designs For Life: Molecular Biology After World War II". Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-57078-6
*Chargaff, E. (1978) "Heraclitean Fire". New York: Rockefeller Press.
*Chomet, S., ed., (1994) "D.N.A.: Genesis of a Discovery" London: Newman-Hemisphere Press.
*Collins, Francis. (2004) "Coming to Peace With Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology". InterVarsity Press. ISBN 978-0830827428
*Collins, Francis. (2007) "The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief" Free Press. ISBN 978-1416542742
*Crick, F.H.C. (1988) "What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery" (Basic Books reprint edition, 1990) ISBN 0-465-09138-5
*Friedburg, E. C. 2005) "The Writing Life of James D. Watson"." "Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press" ISBN 0879697008
*Hunter, G. (2004) "Light Is A Messenger: the life and science of William Lawrence Bragg". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-852921-X
*Inglis, J., Sambrook, J. & Witkowski, J. A. (eds.) "Inspiring Science: Jim Watson and the Age of DNA." Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2003. ISBN 978-087969698-6.
*Judson, H. F. (1996). "The Eighth Day of Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Biology, Expanded edition." Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0879694785
*Maddox, B. (2003). "Rosalind Franklin: The Dark Lady of DNA." Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060985089
*Robert Olby; 1974) "The Path to The Double Helix: Discovery of DNA". London: MacMillan. ISBN 0-486-68117-3; Definitive DNA textbook, with foreword by Francis Crick, revised in 1994 with a 9 page postscript.
*Robert Olby; (2003) [http://chem-faculty.ucsd.edu/joseph/CHEM13/DNA1.pdf "Quiet debut for the double helix"] "Nature" 421 (January 23): 402-405.
* Robert Olby; "Francis Crick: A Biography", Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, ISBN 9780879697983, to be published in late 2008.
*Ridley, M. (2006) "Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives)" New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-06-082333-X.
*Watson, J. D. (1968) . New York: Atheneum.
*Watson, J. D. (1968). "The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA." (Norton Critical Editions, 1981). Edited by Gunther S. Stent. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-95075-1
*Watson, J. D., T. A. Baker, S. P. Bell, A. Gann, M. Levine, and R. Losick, eds., (2003) "Molecular Biology of the Gene". (5th edition) New York: Benjamin Cummings ISBN 0-8053-4635-X
*Watson, J. D. (2002) "Genes, Girls, and Gamow: After the Double Helix". New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-41283-2
*Watson, J. D. with A. Berry (2003) "DNA: The Secret of Life" New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-41546-7
* Watson, J.D. (2007) "Avoid Boring People and Other Lessons from a Life in Science", New York, Random House, ISBN 978-0-375-41284-4, 366 pp.
*Wilkins, M. (2003) "The Third Man of the Double Helix: The Autobiography of Maurice Wilkins". Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860665-6.
* "The History of the University of Cambridge: Volume 4" (1870 to 1990), Cambridge University Press, 1992.