Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, OM (9 May 1860 – 19 June 1937) was a Scottish author and dramatist, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan. The child of a family of small-town weavers, he was educated in Scotland. He moved to London, where he developed a career as a novelist and playwright. There he met the Llewelyn Davies boys who inspired him in writing about a baby boy who has magical adventures in Kensington Gardens (included in The Little White Bird), then to write Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, a "fairy play" about this ageless boy and an ordinary girl named Wendy who have adventures in the fantasy setting of Neverland. This play quickly overshadowed his previous work and although he continued to write successfully, it became his best-known work, credited with popularising the name Wendy, which was very uncommon previously. Barrie unofficially adopted the Davies boys following the deaths of their parents. Before his death, he gave the rights to the Peter Pan works to Great Ormond Street Hospital, which continues to benefit from them.
Childhood and adolescence
Barrie was born in Kirriemuir, Angus, to a conservative Calvinist family. His father David Barrie was a modestly successful weaver. His mother, Margaret Ogilvy, had assumed her deceased mother's household responsibilities at the age of eight. Barrie was the ninth child of ten (two of whom died before he was born), all of whom were schooled in at least the three Rs, in preparation for possible professional careers. He was a small child (he only grew to 5 ft 3½ in. according to his 1934 passport), and drew attention to himself with storytelling.
When he was 6 years old, Barrie's next-older brother David (his mother's favourite) died two days before his 14th birthday in an ice-skating accident. This left his mother devastated, and Barrie tried to fill David's place in his mother's attentions, even wearing David's clothes and whistling in the manner that he did. One time Barrie entered her room, and heard her say 'Is that you?' 'I thought it was the dead boy she was speaking to,' wrote Barrie in his biographical account of his mother, Margaret Ogilvy (1896), 'and I said in a little lonely voice, "No, it's no' him, it's just me."' Barrie's mother found comfort in the fact that her dead son would remain a boy forever, never to grow up and leave her. Despite evidence to the contrary, it has been speculated that this trauma induced psychogenic dwarfism, and was responsible for his short stature and apparently asexual adulthood. Eventually Barrie and his mother entertained each other with stories of her brief childhood and books such as Robinson Crusoe, works by fellow Scotsman Walter Scott, and The Pilgrim's Progress.
At the age of 8, Barrie was sent to The Glasgow Academy, in the care of his eldest siblings Alexander and Mary Ann, who taught at the school. When he was 10 he returned home and continued his education at the Forfar Academy. At 13, he left home for Dumfries Academy, again under the watch of Alexander and Mary Ann. He became a voracious reader, and was fond of penny dreadfuls, and the works of Robert Michael Ballantyne and James Fenimore Cooper. At Dumfries he and his friends spent time in the garden of Moat Brae house, playing pirates 'in a sort of Odyssey that was long afterwards to become the play of Peter Pan'. They formed a drama club, producing his first play Bandelero the Bandit, which provoked a minor controversy following a scathing moral denunciation from a clergyman on the school's governing board.
Barrie wished to pursue a career as an author, but was dissuaded by his family — who wished him to have a profession such as the ministry, telling him it's what David would have done, had he been alive. With wise advice from Alec, he was able to work out a compromise. He was to attend a university, but would study literature. He enrolled at the University of Edinburgh, where he wrote drama reviews for Edinburgh Evening Courant. He was extremely introverted, and was shy about the fact he was in college and only approximately five feet. He would go on to graduate with his M.A. on April 21, 1882.
He worked for a year and a half as a staff journalist in Nottingham following a job advertisement found by his sister in The Scotsman, then returned to Kirriemuir, using his mother's stories about the town (which he called 'Thrums') for a piece submitted to the newspaper St. James's Gazette in London. The editor 'liked that Scotch thing', so Barrie wrote a series of them, which served as the basis for his first novels: Auld Licht Idylls (1888), A Window in Thrums (1890), and The Little Minister (1891). The stories depicted the "Auld Lichts", a strict religious sect that his grandfather had once belonged to. Literary criticism of these early works has been unfavourable, tending to disparage them as sentimental and nostalgic depictions of a parochial Scotland far from the realities of the industrialised nineteenth century, but they were popular enough to establish Barrie as a very successful writer. After the success of the "Auld Lichts", he printed Better Dead (1888) privately and at his own expense, and it failed to sell. His two 'Tommy' novels, Sentimental Tommy (1896) and Tommy and Grizel (1900), were about a boy and young man who clings to childish fantasy, with an unhappy ending.
Meanwhile, Barrie's attention turned increasingly to works for the theatre, beginning with a biography of Richard Savage and written by both Barrie and H.B. Marriott Watson (performed only once, and critically panned). He immediately followed this with Ibsen's Ghost (or Toole Up-to-Date) (1891), a parody of Henrik Ibsen's dramas Hedda Gabler and Ghosts (unlicensed in the UK until 1914, it had created a sensation at the time from a single 'club' performance). The production of Barrie's play at Toole's Theatre in London was seen by William Archer, the translator of Ibsen's works into English, who enjoyed the humour of the play and recommended it to others. His third play, Walker, London (1892), helped him be introduced to a young actress named Mary Ansell. Although he was unsure about his own suitability for marriage, he proposed to her and they were married on July 9, 1894. He got Ansell a Saint Bernard puppy, who would play a part in the novel The Little White Bird (or Adventures in Kensington Gardens). He also gave Ansell's Christian name to many characters in novels.
Barrie also authored Jane Annie, a failed comic opera for Richard D'Oyly Carte (1893), which he begged his friend Arthur Conan Doyle to revise and finish for him. In 1901 and 1902 he had back-to-back successes: Quality Street, about a responsible 'old maid' who poses as her own flirtatious niece to win the attention of a former suitor returned from the war; and The Admirable Crichton, a critically acclaimed social commentary with elaborate staging, about an aristocratic household shipwrecked on a desert island, in which the butler naturally rises to leadership over his lord and ladies for the duration of their time away from civilization.
The first appearance of Peter Pan came in The Little White Bird, which was serialised in the United States, then published in a single volume in the UK in 1901. Barrie's most famous and enduring work, Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up, had its first stage performance on 27 December 1904. This play introduced audiences to the name Wendy, which was inspired by a young girl, Margaret Henley, who called Barrie 'Friendy', but could not pronounce her Rs very well and so it came out as 'Fwendy'. It has been performed innumerable times since then, was developed by Barrie into the 1911 novel Peter and Wendy, and has been adapted by others into feature films, musicals, and more. The Bloomsbury scenes show the societal constraints of late Victorian middle-class domestic reality, contrasted with Neverland, a world where morality is ambivalent. George Bernard Shaw's description of the play as 'ostensibly a holiday entertainment for children but really a play for grown-up people', suggests deeper social allegories at work in Peter Pan.
In April 1929 Barrie specified that the copyright of the Peter Pan works should go to the nation's leading children's hospital, Great Ormond Street Hospital in London. The current status of the copyright is somewhat complex.
Barrie had a long string of successes on the stage after Peter Pan, many of which discuss social concerns. The Twelve Pound Look shows a wife divorcing a peer and gaining an independent income. Other plays, such as Mary Rose and a subplot in Dear Brutus revisit the image of the ageless child. Later plays included What Every Woman Knows (1908). His final play was The Boy David (1936), which dramatised the Biblical story of King Saul and the young David. Like the role of Peter Pan, that of David was played by a woman, Elisabeth Bergner, for whom Barrie wrote the play.
Barrie used his considerable income to help finance the production of commercially unsuccessful stage productions. Along with a number of other playwrights, he was involved in the 1909 and 1911 attempts to challenge the censorship of the theatre by the Lord Chamberlain.
Sir James Barrie, around 1910.
Barrie travelled in high literary circles, and in addition to his professional collaborators, he had many famous friends. Novelist George Meredith was an early social patron. He had a long correspondence with fellow Scot Robert Louis Stevenson, who lived in Samoa at the time, but the two never met in person. George Bernard Shaw was for several years his neighbour, and once participated in a Western that Barrie scripted and filmed. H. G. Wells was a friend of many years, and tried to intervene when Barrie's marriage fell apart. Barrie met Thomas Hardy through Hugh Clifford while he was staying in London.
After the First World War Barrie sometimes stayed at Stanway House. He paid for the pavilion at Stanway cricket ground. Barrie founded an amateur cricket team for his friends. Arthur Conan Doyle, Wells, and other luminaries such as Jerome K. Jerome, G. K. Chesterton, A. A. Milne, Walter Raleigh, A. E. W. Mason, E. V. Lucas, Maurice Hewlett, E. W. Hornung, P. G. Wodehouse, Owen Seaman, Bernard Partridge, Augustine Birrell, Paul du Chaillu, and the son of Alfred Tennyson played in the team at various times. The team was called the Allahakbarries, under the mistaken belief that 'Allah akbar' meant 'Heaven help us' in Arabic (rather than 'God is great').
Barrie befriended Africa explorer Joseph Thomson and Antarctica explorer Robert Falcon Scott. He was godfather to Scott's son Peter, and was one of the seven people to whom Scott wrote letters in the final hours of his life following his successful – but doomed – expedition to the South Pole, asking Barrie to take care of his wife Kathleen and son Peter. Barrie was so proud of the letter that he carried it around for the rest of his life.
In 1896, his agent, Addison Bright persuaded him to meet with Broadway producer Charles Frohman. Frohman would become not only his financial backer, but a close friend as well. Frohman, who was responsible for producing the debut of Peter Pan in both England and the U.S., as well as other productions of Barrie's plays, famously declined a lifeboat seat when the RMS Lusitania was sunk by a German U-boat in the North Atlantic. Actress Rita Jolivet, who stood with Frohman, George Vernon, and Captain Alick Scott at the end, survived the sinking and recalled Frohman paraphrasing Peter Pan: 'Why fear death? It is the most beautiful adventure that life gives us.'
Barrie met and told stories to the young daughters of the Duke of York, the future Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret.
Barrie became acquainted with actress Mary Ansell in 1891 when he asked his friend Jerome K. Jerome for a pretty actress to play a role in his play Walker, London. The two became friends, and she joined his family in caring for him when he fell very ill in 1893 and 1894. They married in Kirriemuir on 9 July 1894, shortly after Barrie recovered, and Mary retired from the stage; but the relationship was reportedly unconsummated and the couple had no children. The marriage was a small ceremony in his parents' home, in the Scottish tradition. In 1900 Mary found Black Lake Cottage, at Farnham, Surrey, which became the couple's 'bolt hole' where Barrie could entertain his cricketing friends and the Llewelyn Davieses. Beginning in mid 1908, Mary had an affair with Gilbert Cannan (an associate of Barrie's in his anti-censorship activities), including a visit together to Black Lake Cottage, known only to the house staff. When Barrie learned of the affair in July 1909, he demanded that she end it, but she refused. To avoid the scandal of divorce, he offered a legal separation if she would agree not to see Cannan any more, but she still refused. Barrie sued for divorce on the grounds of infidelity, which was granted in October 1909. A few of Barrie's friends, knowing how painful the divorce was for him, wanted to avoid bad press. They wrote to newspaper editors asking them not to publish the story (only three papers did).
Llewelyn Davies family
The Arthur Llewelyn Davies family played an important part in Barrie's literary and personal life. It consisted of the parents Arthur (1863–1907) and Sylvia (1866–1910) (daughter of George du Maurier), and their five sons: George (1893–1915), John (Jack) (1894–1959), Peter (1897–1960), Michael (1900–1921), and Nicholas (Nico) (1903–1980).
Barrie became acquainted with the family in 1897, meeting George and Jack (and baby Peter) with their nurse (nanny) Mary Hodgson in London's Kensington Gardens. He lived nearby and often walked his Saint Bernard dog Porthos in the park. He entertained the boys regularly with his ability to wiggle his ears and eyebrows, and with his stories. He did not meet Sylvia until a chance encounter at a dinner party in December. She told Barrie that Peter had been named after the title character in her father's play, Peter Ibbetson. He became a regular visitor at the Davies household and a common companion to the woman and her boys, despite the fact that he and she were each married. In 1901, he invited the Davies family to Black Lake Cottage, where he produced an album of captioned photographs of the boys acting out a pirate adventure, entitled The Boy Castaways of Black Lake Island. Barrie had two copies made, one of which he gave to Arthur, who misplaced it on a train. The only surviving copy is held at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.
The character of Peter Pan was invented to entertain George and Jack. Barrie would say, to amuse them, that their little brother Peter could fly. He claimed that babies were birds before they were born; parents put bars on nursery windows to keep the little ones from flying away. This grew into a tale of a baby boy who did fly away.
Arthur Llewelyn Davies died in 1907, and 'Uncle Jim' became even more involved with the Davies family, providing financial support to them. (His income from Peter Pan and other works was easily adequate to provide for their living expenses and education.) Following Sylvia's death in 1910, Barrie claimed that they had recently been engaged to be married. Her will indicated nothing to that effect, but specified her wish for 'J. M. B.' to be trustee and guardian to the boys, along with her mother Emma, her brother Guy du Maurier, and Arthur's brother Compton. It expressed her confidence in Barrie as the boys' caretaker and her wish for 'the boys to treat him (& their uncles) with absolute confidence & straightforwardness & to talk to him about everything.' When copying the will informally for Sylvia's family a few months later, Barrie inserted himself elsewhere: Sylvia had written that she would like Mary Hodgson, the boys' nurse, to continue taking care of them, and for 'Jenny' (referring to Hodgson's sister) to come and help her; Barrie instead wrote 'Jimmy' (Sylvia's nickname for him). Barrie and Hodgson did not get along well, but served together as surrogate parents until the boys were grown.
Barrie also had friendships with other children, both before he met the Davies boys and after they had grown up, and there has since been speculation that Barrie was a paedophile. One source for the speculation is a scene in the novel The Little White Bird, in which in the protagonist (who resembles Barrie) helps a small boy undress for bed, and at the boy's request they sleep in the same bed. However, there is no evidence that Barrie had sexual contact with children, nor that he was suspected of it at the time. Nico, the youngest of the brothers, flatly denied as an adult that Barrie ever behaved inappropriately. 'I don't believe that Uncle Jim ever experienced what one might call "a stirring in the undergrowth" for anyone — man, woman, or child,' he stated. 'He was an innocent — which is why he could write Peter Pan.' His relationships with the surviving Davies boys continued well beyond their childhood and adolescence.
The statue of Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, erected in secret overnight for May Morning in 1912, was supposed to be modelled upon old photographs of Michael dressed as the character. However, the sculptor Sir George Frampton used a different child as a model, leaving Barrie disappointed with the result. 'It doesn't show the devil in Peter,' he said.
Barrie suffered bereavements with the boys, losing the two to whom he was closest in their early twenties. George was killed in action (1915) in World War I. Michael, with whom Barrie corresponded daily while at boarding school and university, drowned (1921) with his friend and possible lover, Rupert Buxton, at a known danger spot at Sandford Lock near Oxford, one month short of his 21st birthday. Some years after Barrie's death, Peter compiled his Morgue from family letters and papers, interpolated with his own informed comments on his family and their relationship with Barrie.
Barrie died of pneumonia on 19 June 1937 and is buried at Kirriemuir next to his parents and two of his siblings. He left the bulk of his estate (excluding the Peter Pan works, which he had previously given to Great Ormond Street Hospital) to his secretary Cynthia Asquith. His birthplace at 4 Brechin Road is maintained as a museum by the National Trust for Scotland.
- Hammerton, J A (1929). Barrie: the Story of a Genius. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.
- Darlington, W A (1938). J. M. Barrie. London and Glasgow: Blackie & Son. ISBN 0838317685.
- Mackail, Denis (1941). Barrie, the Story of J. M. B.. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0836967348.
- Dunbar, Janet (1970). J. M. Barrie: The Man Behind the Image. London: Collins. ISBN 0-002-11384-8.
- Birkin, Andrew (2003). J. M. Barrie and the Lost Boys: The Real Story Behind Peter Pan. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300098228.
- Chaney, Lisa (2006). Hide-and-Seek with Angels: A Life of J. M. Barrie. Arrow. ISBN 978-0099453239.
- Dudgeon, Piers (2009). Captivated: J.M. Barrie, the du Mauriers & the Dark Side of Neverland. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-0099520450.
- Stokes, Sewell (November 1941). "James M Barrie". New York Theatre Arts Inc 25 (11): 845–848.
Barrie was made a baronet in 1913; his baronetcy was not inherited. He was made a member of the Order of Merit in 1922. In 1919 he was elected Rector of the University of St Andrews for the next three years, and served as Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh from 1930 to 1937.
Works (by year)
- Auld Licht Idylls (1888)
- Better Dead (1888)
- When a Man's Single (1888)
- A Window in Thrums (1889)
- My Lady Nicotine (1890), republished in 1926 with subtitle A Study in Smoke
- The Little Minister (1891)
- Richard Savage (1891)
- Jane Annie Opera, music by Ernest Ford, libretto by Barrie and Arthur Conan Doyle (1893)
- A Powerful Drug and Other Stories (1893)
- A Tillyloss Scandal (1893)
- Two of Them (1893)
- A Lady's Shoe (1894)
- Life in a Country Manse (1894)
- Scotland's Lament: A Poem on the Death of Robert Louis Stevenson (1895)
- Sentimental Tommy, The Story of His Boyhood (1896)
- Margaret Ogilvy (1896)
- Tommy and Grizel (1900)
- The Wedding Guest (1900)
- The Boy Castaways of Black Lake Island (1901)
- Quality Street (1901)
- The Admirable Crichton (1902)
- The Little White Bird; or, Adventures in Kensington Gardens (1902)
- Little Mary (1903)
- Peter Pan (staged 1904)
- Alice Sit-By-The-Fire (1905)
- Pantaloon (1905)
- Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens (1906)
- What Every Woman Knows (1906)
- Walker, London (1907)
- When Wendy Grew Up - An Afterthought (1908)
- Peter and Wendy (novel) (1911)
- A Kiss for Cinderella (1912)
- Half Hours (1914) includes:
- The Twelve-Pound Look
- The Will
- Der Tag (The Tragic Man) (1914)
- Charles Frohman: A Tribute (1915)
- Shakespeare's Legacy (1916)
- Dear Brutus (1917)
- Echoes of the War (1918) includes:
- The New Word
- The Old Lady Shows Her Medals (basis for the movie Seven Days Leave (1930), starring Gary Cooper)
- A Well-Remembered Voice
- Barbara's Wedding
- Mary Rose (1920)
- The Twelve-Pound Look (1921)
- The Author (1925)
- Cricket (1926)
- Shall We Join the Ladies? (1928) includes:
- Shall We Join the Ladies?
- Half an Hour
- Seven Women
- Old Friends
- Peter Pan (stageplay published) (1928)
- The Greenwood Hat (1930)
- Farewell Miss Julie Logan (1932)
- The Boy David (1936)
- M'Connachie and J. M. B. (1938)
- When Wendy Grew Up: An Afterthought (1957)
- Ibsen's Ghost(Toole Up-to-Date) (1975)
- story treatment for film As You Like It (1936)
- Stories by English Authors: London (selected by Scribners, as contributor)
- Stories by English Authors: Scotland (selected by Scribners, as contributor)
- preface to The Young Visiters or, Mr. Salteena's Plan by Daisy Ashford
- ^ "History of the name Wendy". Wendy.com. http://www.wendy.com/wendyweb/history.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- ^ a b c d e f g Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys (Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2003)
- ^ Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers by Robert M. Sapolsky (1994) ISBN 9780805073690
- ^ a b c d e f Chaney, Lisa. Hide-and-Seek with Angels — A Life of J. M. Barrie, London: Arrow Books, 2005
- ^ McConnachie and J. M. B.: Speeches of J. M. Barrie, Peter Davies, 1938
- ^ "Peter Pan project off the ground". BBC News Scotland. 2009-08-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/scotland/south_of_scotland/8188245.stm. Retrieved 2009-08-08.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n White, Donna R. S. (1994). British Children's Writers, 1880-1914. Detroit, Michigan: Gale. ISBN 978-0-8103-5555-2.
- ^ J. M. Barrie. "A Window in Thrums". Project Gutenberg. http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=20914.
- ^ Dominic Shellard, et al. The Lord Chamberlain Regrets, 2004, British Library, p77-79.
- ^ Smith, Mark (2 September 2010). "Two friends who took the world by storm". The Scotsman. http://news.scotsman.com/news/Two-friends-who-took-the.6508127.jp. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- ^ Ellis, Frederick D., The Tragedy of the Lusitania (National Publishing Company, 1915), pp. 38–39; Preston, Diana, Lusitania, An Epic Tragedy (Walker & Company, 2002), p. 204; New York Tribune, “Frohman Calm; Not Concerned About Death, Welcomed It as Beautiful Adventure, He Told Friends at End,” May 11, 1915, p. 3; Marcosson, Isaac Frederick, & Daniel Frohman, Charles Frohman: Manager and Man (John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1916), p. 387; Frohman, Charles, The Lusitania Resource
- ^ "General Register Office for Scotland". Gro-scotland.gov.uk. http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/famrec/from-our-records/hallfame/art-and-literature.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- ^ Birkin, Andrew: J. M. Barrie & the Lost Boys (Constable, 1979; revised edition, Yale University Press, 2003)
- ^ "Surrey Monocle". Surrey Monocle. 2007-01-10. http://www.surreymonocle.co.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=33. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- ^ "J. M. Barrie Seeks Divorce from Wife". New York Times. October 7, 1909. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9A0DE1D8123EE733A25754C0A9669D946897D6CF. Retrieved 2010-04-17. "The name of James M. Barrie, the playwright, figures as a petitioner in the list of divorce cases set down for trial at the next session of the law courts here."
- ^ married the 3Q of 1892 in Hampstead, London: GROMI: vol. 1a, p. 1331
- ^ Neverpedia article about Porthos
- ^ "Andrew Birkin on J. M. Barrie". Jmbarrie.co.uk. 1960-04-05. http://www.jmbarrie.co.uk/boycastaways/ab_on_JMB_RSC.html. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ J. M. Barrie's Boy Castaways at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University
- ^ Justine Picardie Published: 12:01AM BST 13 Jul 2008 (2008-07-13). "How bad was J. M. Barrie?". London: Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/donotmigrate/3556421/How-bad-was-J.M.-Barrie.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- ^ Parker, James (2004-02-22). "The real Peter Pan - The Boston Globe". Boston.com. http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2004/02/22/the_real_peter_pan/. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- ^ "J. M. Barrie and Peter Pan — Winter 2005 Issue — Endicott Studio: Peter Pan 2". Endicott-studio.com. http://www.endicott-studio.com/rdrm/rrPeterPan2.html. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- ^ "Audio". Jmbarrie.co.uk. http://www.jmbarrie.co.uk/audio/?mode=3. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
- ^ "Rupert Buxton". Neverpedia.com. http://neverpedia.com/pan/Rupert_Buxton. Retrieved 2010-12-28.
- ^ Carnival PR and Design. "The Barrie School". Barrie.org. http://www.barrie.org/. Retrieved 2009-07-22.
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